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THE IRISH NATURALIST 



J< 5llont^lY 'Uouritttl 

OF 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY 

ORGAN OF THE 

Royal Zoological Society of Ireland; Dublin Microscopical Club; 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club ; Dublin Naturalists' Field Club ; 

Cork Naturalists' Field Club 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE H. CARPENTER, D.Sc M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A.. B.E.. M.R.I.A. 



VOL. XXVII. 



DUBLIN: EASON & SON, LIMITED 

42 GREAT BRUNSWICK STREET 
BELFAST- 17 DONEGALL STREET 
LONDON : SIMPKIN. MARSHALL. HAMILTON. KENT & CO.. LTD 

1918. 



CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THE PRESENT VOLUME. 



Abbott, Wm., Fermoy. 

Baring, Hon. Cecil, London. 

Benson, Rev. Canon C. W., ll.d., Balbriggan. 

Beveridge, Fred. S., Barracks, MuUingar. 

Bigger, F. J., Ardrie, Belfast. 

BoLAM, George, Alston, Cumberland. 

Brade-Birks, Hilda K., m.sc, m.b., Darwcn, Lanes. 

Brade-Birks, Rev. S. Graham, m.sc, Darwen, Lanes. 

Brunker, J. P., Rathgar, Dublin. 

Bullock- Webster, Rev. Canon G. R., London. 

BuRKiTT, J. P., C.E., Enniskillen. 

Burrows, Rev. C. R. N., Stanford-le-Hope, Essex. 

Carpenter, Prof. G. H,, d.sc, Roj^al College of Science, Dublin. 

Clarke, W. Eagle, ll.d., Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

Cole, Prof. G. A. J., f.r.s.. Royal College of Science, Dublin. 

CoLGAN, N., Sandycove, Co. Dublin. 

Collinge, Walter E., d.sc, f.l.s.. University, St. Andrews. 

Flemyng, Rev. Canon W. W., m.a., Coolfin, Portlaw. 

Foster, X. H., f.l.s., Hillsborough. 

Greer, Thomas, Curglasson, Stewartstown. 

Gunn, W. F., J.P., Dawson Street, Dublin. 

Gurney, J. H., Keswick Hall, Norfolk. 

Halbert, J. N., National Museum, Dublin. 

Hart, W. E., Kilderry, Londonderry. 

Hinch, J. de W., National Library, Dublin. 

Holland, M., Cork. 

Huggins, H. C, Syndale House, Sittingbourne. 

Jackson, J. Wilfred, Manchester Museum. 

Johnson, Rev. W. F., m.a., Poyntzpass. 

Keane, T. W. L., Ardmore, Co. Waterford. 

Kerr, Helen M. Rait, Fiathmoyle, Edenderry. 

^Iegaw, Rev. R. W., Ahoghill. 

Moffat, C. B., b.a.. Bally hyland, Enniscorthy. 

Patten, Prof. C. J., m.d.. University, Sheffield. 

Pethybridge, G. H., PH.D., Royal College of Science, Dublin. 

Phillips, R. A., Ashburton, Cork. 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, National Library, Dublin. 

Rathborne, H. B., Dreenan, Co. Fermanagh. 

RuTTLEDGE, RoBERT F., Bloomficld, Hollymouiit. 

RuTTLEDGE, WiLLiAM, Bloomfield, Hollymount. 

Scharff, R. F., PH.D., National Museum, Dublin. 

Scully, R. W., Rockfield, Dundrum, Co. Dublin. 

Stelfox, a. W., Bally magee, Bangor, Co. Down. 

Stendall, J. A. Sidney, Municipal Museum, Belfast. 

Wear, Sylvanus, Belfast. 

Wilson, J. ]\1ackay, Currygrane, Co. Longford. 

Workman, W. H., Windsor, Belfast. 



PLATES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Edward Hull .... 

W. F. de V. Kane 

Map illustrating Woodcock migration 

Pisidium hibernicum, &c, 

Pisidium medianum and P. hibernicum 

Sketch-map of Caha Lakes 



To face page 17 
page 97 
Page 92 

To face page 33 

page 37 

Page 121 



h 



INDEX . 



Abbott, W. M. : Jays feeding on 
wheat, 131 ; Scarcity of the Field- 
fare and Redwing, 79. 

Alien plants of Co, Dublin, 86. 

Aliens : some Cork Aliens, 63. 

Arenaria ciliata, 95. 

Argynnis aglaiain N. \V. Wexford, 172. 

Baring, Cecil : Lepidoptera of Lam- 
bay, 65. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club : 30, 
50, 68, 74, 90, no, 159. 

Benson, C. W. : Bird Notes from 
Balbriggan, 173; Stray Bird Notes, 
Autumn, 1917, 14. 

Beveridge, Fred. S. : Green Sandpiper 
in Co. Westmeath, 112. 

Bigger, F. J. : Pigeons in Belfast, 65. 

Birds : Bird-life at Currygrane, Co. 
Longford, in ; Bird Notes from 
Balbriggan, 173 ; Birds in King's 
Co., 31; Incubation period, 112; 
Notes on birds, especially the White- 
throat, 140 ; Stray Bird Notes, 
Autumn, 1917, 14. 

Bolam, George : Owls and Sparrow- 
hawks clapping their wings, 15. 

Braconidae, 106. 

Brade-Birks, Hilda K. and the Rev. 
S. Graham Brade-Birks : Notes on 
Myriapoda, 27. 

Brunker, J. P. : New Station for 
Lathraea squamaria in Co. Dublin, 
no. 

Bullock- Webster, Rev. Canon G. R. : 
Characeae of the Rosses, West 
Donegal, 7. 

Burkitt, J. P. : Notes on Birds, es- 
pecially the Whitethroat, 140. 

Burrows, C. R. N. : Irish Psychid 
Moths, II. 

Butterflies and Moths in Ireland, great 
increase of, 11. 

Cardamine amara in East Tyrone, 95. 

Carpenter, George H. : Obituary- 
notice of W. F. de Vismes Kane, 97. 

Caterpillar, abnormal, of Choerocampa, 
172. 

Cave of Dunmore, 148. 

Cunningham, Robert Oliver : Obituary 
notice, 128. 

Characeae : Characeae of the Rosses, 
W. Donegal, 7 ; possible hunting 
grounds for, 64. 



Chrysomyxa abietis in Ireland, 130. 
Clarke, William Eagle : Woodcock 

marked in Ireland and recovered in 

Shetland, 15. 
Cole, Grenville A. J. : Obituary 

notice of Edward Hull, 17. 
Colgan, Nathaniel : Ahen plants of 

Co. Dublin, 86 ; Lusitania and 

Kerry, a botanical parallel, 20 ; 

Reproduction of the Garden Snail 

(Helix aspersa), 165. 
Collinge, Walter E. : Porcellio Rath- 

kii, I. 
Cork Naturalists' Field Club, 51, 160. 
Corncrake in Trinity College Park, 96. 
Cosmos Club, 76. 

Darwin, Charles, Harvey's paper on 

162. 
Deer, Red, 133. 

Derc-Ferna, the Cave of Dunmore, 148. 
Dicranella heteromalla, 16. 
Dolphins and Whales stranded in 

Ireland, 164. 
Douglas, Captain, Notes on his article 

on Woodcock migration, 92. 
Draba muralis in Co. Down, no. 
Dublin Microscopical Club : 16, 29, 

51, 68, 75, 91, 171. 
Dublin Naturalists' Field Club : 31, 
50, 90. 

Ecdyurus, jaws of the nymph of, 30. 
Ericaceae, 75. 

F'ieldfare, scarcity of, 79, 132. 

Flatfish, larval, position of eye, 73. 

Flemyng, W. W. : Magpie's flight, 96 ; 
Sphinx convolvuli attacked by 
larvae of dipteron, 13. 

Foster, Nevin H. : Draba muralis in 
Co. Down, no; Early arrival of 
spring migrants, 96 ; Spiranthes 
Romanzoffiana in Co. Armagh, 163. 

Fuligo septica var. Candida, 52. 

Galium sylvestre in Co. Antrim, 164. 
Gastrophilus equi, anterior spiracles, 

51- 
Geese : Snow Geese at Mutton Islaiid, 

112. 
Glacier : Irish Sea glacier, development 

and decay, 53. 
Gold-crest, return, 173. 
Gonepteryx rhamni in Co. F'ermanagh, 

173- 



VI 



Index. 



Greer, Thomas : Lepidoptera from 
East Tyrone, 4 ; Notodonta bicoloria 
in Co. Kerry, 65. 

Gunn, W. F. : Fuligo septica var. 
Candida, 32 ; Irish Myxomycetes. 

174- 
Gurney, J. H. : " Swiney " and 

" Thricccock," meaning of, 80. 

Halbcrt, J, N. : Convolvulus Hawk- 
moth in Ireland, 81 ; Sphinx con- 
volvuli attacked by larvae of dip- 
teron, 13. 

Hart, W. E. : Abnormal Caterpillar of 
Choerocampa, 172. 

Harvev, W. H. : Paper on Darwinism, 
162/ 

Hillas, Arthur B. E. : Obituary 
notice, 162. 

Hinch, J. de W. : Development and 
decay of the Irish Sea Glacier, ^^i- 

Holland, M. : Some Cork Aliens, 63. 

Huggins, H. C. : Limnaeae of the 
alpine lakes in Glengarriff District, 
West Cork, iig. 

Hull, Edward, Obituary notice, 17. 

Hymenoptera, Aculeate, from Armagh 
and Donegal, 2. 

Hypoderma bovis, anterior spiracles, 



Ichneumonidae, Irish, 106. 

Jackson, J. Wilfrid : Limnaea glabra 
in Ireland, 77. 

Jay in Co. Longford, 174. 

Jays feeding on wheat, 131. 

Johnson, Rev. W. F. : Aculeate 
Hymenoptera from Armagh and 
Donegal, 2 ; Convolvulus Hawk- 
Moth in Counties Antrim and 
Down, 12 ; Late Wasp, 12 ; Purple 
Sea-urchin at Inishkeel, Co. Donegal, 
10 ; Some more Irish Ichneumoni- 
dae and Braconidac, 106. 

Kane, William Francis de Vismes, 

Obituary notice of, 97. 
Keane, T. W. L. : Abundance of 

Lepidoptera in 191 7, 52. 
Kerr, Helen M. Rait : Birds in King's 

Co., 31 ; Green Sandpiper in King's 

Co., 14 ; Incubation period of birds, 

1 12. 
Kerry and Lusitania, botanical parallel, 

20. 

La,sioseius fucicola, 75. 
Lathraca squamaria, new station in 
Co. Dublin, 1 10. 



Lathyrus maritimus. Reappearance in 
Kerry, 113. 

Lens, i-5oth inch objective, 91. 

Lepidoptera : Lambay, 65 ; Lepi- 
doptera in 191 7, abundance of, =,2 ; 
Tyrone East, 4. 

Lignite from Carrig-a-puUiar, 29. 

Limnaea glabra in Ireland, 77, 78. 

Limnaeae of the alpine lakes, Glen- 
garriff district. West Cork, 119. 

Lusitania and Kerry, a botanical 
parallel, 20. 

^lagpie, flight, 96. 

Megaw.W. R. : Galium sylvestre in Co. 
Antrim, 164. 

[Migration on Lough Mask, 2)~- 

Milne, James Napier, Obituary Notice, 
129. 

Moffat, C. B. : Argynnis aglaia in 
N.W. Wexford, 172 ; New locality 
for Thecla betulae, 172 ; Owls clap- 
ping their wings, 132 ; Return of the 
Gold-crest, 173 ; Scarcity of the 
Fieldfare, 132. 

MoUusks, Irish fossil, 69. 

[Moths : Convolvulus Haw'k-moth in 
Antrim and Down, 12 ; Convolvulus 
Hawk-moth in Ireland, 81 ; Irish 
psychid, 11 ; Moths and Butterflies 
in Ireland, great increase of, 11; 
Sphinx convolvuli attacked by 
larvae of dipteron, 13. 

Myriapoda, Notes on, 27. 

Myxomycetes, Irish, 174. 

Natural History Societies in Derry and 

Cork, 79. 
Notodonta bicoloria in Co. Kerry, 65. 

Obituary : Cunningham, Robert Oli- 
ver, 128 ; Hillas, Arthur B. E., 162 ; 
Hull, Edward, 17 ; Kane, W^illiam 
Francis de Vismes, 97 ; Milne, James 
Napier, 129 ; Patterson, William 
Hugh, 76 ; Scharff, Alice, 162. 

Oenanthe crocata, poisonous proper- 
ties, 130. 

Owls and Sparrow-hawks clapping 
their wrings, 15. 

Owls clapping their wings, 132. 

Patten, C. J. : W^oodchat-Shrike on 
migration, obtained at Tuskar Rock, 

79. 
Patterson, William Hugh, Obituary 

notice, 76. 
Pethybridge, George H. : Chrysomyxa 

abietis in Ireland, 130. 
Phillips, R. A. : Limnaea glabra in 

Ireland, 78. 



Index. 



Vll 



Phillips, R. A. and A. W. Stelfox : 
Recent extensions of the range of 
Pisidium hibernicum, 33. 

Phytophthora parasitic on Tomato 
seedlings, &c., 16. 

Pigeons in Belfast, 65. 

Pisidium hibernicum, recent extension 
of range of, 33. 

Plants, County Down, 116, 

Porcellio Rathkii, i. 

Portugal and Kerry : a botanical 
parallel, 20, 

Praeger, R. Lloyd : Botanical Notes 
from Inistioge, 103 ; Derc-Ferna, 
the Cave of Dunmore, 148 ; Harvey, 
W. H., and Charles Darwin, 162 ; 
Irish Fossil Mollusks, 69 ; Natural 
History Societies in Derry and 
Cork, 79 ; Some County Down 
plants, 116; Spiranthes Roman- 
zoffiana in Co. Armagh, 163 ; Tre- 
lease's " Plant Materials of Decora- 
tive Gardening, i. The Woody 
Plants." (Reviewed), 32. 

Rathborne, H. B, : Gonepteryx 
rhamni in Co. Fermanagh, 173. 

Redwing, scarcity of, 79, 

Review : Trelease's " Plant Materials 
of Decorative Gardening, i. The 
Woody Plants," 32. 

Royal Zoological Society : 27, 66, 74, 
no, 158. 

Ruttledge, Robert F. : Migration on 
Lough Mask, 32 ; Sandwich Terns 
breeding in Co. Galway, 15. 

Ruttledge, William : Black Terns on 
Lough Carra, Co. Mayo, 130 ; Snow 
Geese at Mutton Island, Co. Galway, 
112. 

Sandpiper, Green : King's Co., 14 ; 

Westmeath, 112. 
Scharff, Alice : Obituary notice, 162. 
Scharff, R. F. : Irish Red Deer, 133. 
Scully, Reginald W. : Reappearance 

of Lathyrus maritimus in Kerry, 

113. 
Sea-Urchin, Purple, at Inishkeel, Co. 

Donegal, 10. 

Sedum Drucei, 31. 

Shrike : Woodchat-Shrike on migration 

at Tuskar Rock, 79 

Snail, Garden, Reproduction, 165. 

Sparrow-hawks clapping their wings, 

13. 



Sphinx convolvuli : Antrim and Down, 

12 ; attacked by larvae of dipteron, 

13 ; Ireland, 81. 

Spiranthes Romanzofifiana in Co. 

Armagh, 163. 
Spring migrants, early arrival, 96, 
Stelfox, A. W : Characeae, possible 

hunting-grounds for, 64 ; Obituary 

notice of James Napier Milne, 129 
Stelfox, A. W. and R. A. Phillips : 

Recent extensions of the range ot 

Pisidium hibernicum, 33. 
Stendall, J. A. Sidney : Sunfish at 

Larne Harbour, 14. 
Sunfish at Larne Harbour, 14. 
" Swiney," meaning of, 80, 



Terns, Black, Lough Carra, Co. Mayo, 

130. 
Terns, Sandwich, breeding in Co. 

Galway, 13. 
Thecla betulae, 172. 
" Thricecock," meaning of, 80. 
Trelease, William : " Plant Materials 

of Decorative Gardening, i. Tlie 

Woody Plants " (review), 32. 
Tubifera ferruginosa, 16. 

Ustilago hordei, germinating spores, 



Warble Fly ; male reproductive or- 
gans, 16 ; vestigial lateral spiracle 
of larva, 91. 

Wasp : a late wasp, 12. 

Wear : Sylvanus : Cardamine amara 
in East Tyrone, 95. 

Whales and dolphms stranded in Ire- 
land, 164. 

Whitethroat, 140. 

Wilson, J. Mackay : Bird-life at Curry- 
grane, Co. Longford, in ; Corn- 
crake in Trinity College Park, 96 ; 
Jay in Co. Longford, 174. 

Willows, Pollard, water-borne flora of, 
103. 

Woodcock marked in Ireland and re- 
covered in Shetland, 15. 

Woodcock, migration, 92. 

Woodlouse new to Irish fauna, i. 

Workman, W. H. : Butterflies and 
Moths in Ireland, great increase of, 
II ; Migration of Woodcock, some 
notes on an article by Captain 
Douglas, 92, 



^Ijz Irislj JJaturalist. 



VOL XXVII. 



PORCELLIO RATHKII 

A WOODLOUSE NEW TO THE IRISH FAUNA. 
BY WALTER E. COLLINGE, D.SC, F.L.S. 

In their very thorough account of the Woodhce of Ireland^ 
Messrs. Pack-Beresford and Foster remark, under the genus 
PorceiUo, " The two species {Rathkii and Ratzehurgii) which 
have not yet occurred in Ireland are, however, included in 
the following table, as they are very likely to be eventually 
taken here." 

In the preparation of my forthcoming Monograph on the 
Woodlice of the British Isles, I have sought the aid of 
various friends and correspondents in obtaining examples 
of Irish specimens, and in a small collection recently obtained 
from a garden near Dublin, I was pleased to find two 
examples of Porcellio Rathkii, Brandt, which has not 
hitherto been recorded for Ireland. 

I have elsewhere pointed out^ that this species may 
easily be confused with forms of P. pictiis, Br. The lateral 
cephalic lobes, however, in P. pictus are larger than in 
P. Rathkii and terminally more truncate ; the median 
lobe is less prominent and broadly rounded, and the 
proximal joint of the fiagellum of the antenna is the longer 
one. 



^ Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 1911, vol. xxix., pp. 165-190, pi. viii 
* ^coit. Nat., 1917, p. 137. 



2 The Irish Naturalist. Jan\iary, 

P. Rathkii, especially female specimens, is subject to a 
considerable range of colour variations, and also in the 
extent to which it is tuberculated. Webb and Sillem^ 
wrongly state that it " has a smooth body." Sars- says 
that the dorsal face is rather convex " and slightly tuber- 
culated," but I have in my collection many specimens, 
from various localities, in which the tubercles are both 
large and numerous. 

Tn Great Britain this species has been obtained in the 
Isle of Wight and the Channel Isles, and the following 
counties : — Oxford, Bucks, Suffolk, Stafford, Salop, Pem- 
broke, Derby, Cheshire, Lancashire, Durham, Northumber- 
land, Cumberland, Dumbarton, Kinkardine, and the 
Orkneys. In all probability it will be found to be equally 
common in Ireland. 

Examples of any species of Irish Woodlice wall be 
welcomed and gratefully acknowledged by the writer. 

The University, St. Andrews. 



ACULEATE HYMENOPTERA FROM THE COUNTIES 
OF ARMAGH AND DONEGAL. 

BY REV. W. F. JOHNSON, M.A., M.R.I. A. 

It is much to be regretted that the records of Irish Aculeate 
Hymenoptera are so scanty as to make it impossible to 
form any adequate idea of what species exist in this country 
or how they are distributed. No one now seems to take 
any interest in the ants, bees, and wasps of Ireland except 
myself, and my attempts are but spasmodic. These insects 
are among the most interesting of all insects and well repay 



* ' The British Woodlice," 1906, p. 34. 

"^ " Crustacea of Norway," i8q8, vol. ii., p. 180. 



i9i8. W. F. Johnson. — Aculeate Hvmenoptera. 3 

attention, and not being very numerous in genera and 
species are not so difficult to study as other sections of the 
insect world. There are excellent works on the subject, 
including Saunders' " Aculeate Hymenoptera of the British 
Islands," Sladen's " Humble Bee," and Donisthorpe's 
" British Ants." The student will find in these works all 
the information he requires on the subject, with admirable 
figures and descriptions. The position of the Irish list is 
at once shown by the fact that out of 316 British species 
only 167 have been recorded from Ireland. 

In the following list the captures at Coolmore, Co. Donegal, 
were made in August, and those at Portnoo,Co. Donegal, in 
September : — 

Formica fusca Latr. — Portnoo, workers and winged females on the 

sandhills. 
Myrmica ruginodis Nyl. — Portnoo, workers among heather. 

Pompilus spissus Schiodte. — Poyntzpass, a female taken in the avenue 
of Acton House among grass in June. New to Ireland. 

P. pectinipes V. de L. — Coolmore, a male taken on a grassy bank at side 
of a lane. 

Salius exaltatus Fab. — Coolmore, a female. 

Passaloecus insignis V. de L. — Poyntzpass, a female taken on the road 

between my house and the village. New to Ireland. It makes its 

nest in bramble stems or decaying wood. 
Mellinus arvensis L. — Portnoo, on sandhills and roadside. 
Crabro elongatulus V. de L. — Poyntzpass, taken on a window at Acton 

House in August. New to Ireland. 
Sphecodes dimidiatus V. Hag. — Coolmore, a female taken in hedgerow 

of lane. 
Halictus longulus Smith. — Coolmore, males, 

H.pauxillus Schenck. "\ _ , , , 

„ . , ^,. , V Coolmore, females. 

H. mmutus Kirby. / 

Andrena denticulata Kirby. — Coolmore, a female. 

Bombus jonellus Kirby. — Portnoo, among heather. 

B. ruderatus F. — Poyntzpass, a female taken in my garden at flowers 

in June. 
B. derhamellus Kirby. — Coolmore, a female, in a lane. 

Psithyrus distinctus Perez. — Poyntzpass, a female taken in a window of 
my house in June. 

Poyntzpass. 

A 2 



4 Thr Irish Naluralist. January, 

NOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA FROM EAST TYRONE 

IN 1917. 

BY THOMAS GREER. 

Although the winter of 1916-17 was the most severe that 
has been experienced for a great number of years, it seems, 
so far as I can judge, to have had little or no adverse 
influence on the insect life of this neighbourhood. On 
April nth the heaviest fall of snow of the whole winter 
occurred, the roads in many places being quite impassable 
owing to the heavy drifts ; yet on the 15th the first insects 
of the year were observed at sallow bloom, and larvae of 
Melitaea aurinia were noticed on the move outside their 
winter webs ; though there was plenty of snow still lying 
about. 

At the sallows, insects were in great force, Taeniocampa 
gracilis (of which 90 per cent, were red forms), T. munda 
(usually in small numbers here), T. opima in its special 
locality, and four Panolis piniperda turned up, an insect 
unknown hereabouts before ; at this time a single Polyploca 
flavicornis was bred from larvae found last July. 

At the end of the month the first Pieris napi was observed, 
and during May the insect was flying in clouds over some 
low-lying meadows, near the house, the males quartering 
the ground in search of the freshly emerging females, 
pairing taking place in many instances before the wings 
of the female were fully expanded. By watching these 
antics of the male I secured a fine variable series of the 
female, with little or no exertion, for an English corres- 
pondent. Later in the season the second brood was equally 
abundant. These same meadows at the time of writing 
are several feet under water, and will remain so for most 
of the winter ; how the thousands of pupae of this and 
other species which are lying exposed on the surface of 
the ground survive this treatment is a mystery. The 
males of Euchloe cardamines were now flying in the sun 
but were much less numerous than in other years, so that 



igi8. Greer. — Lepidoptera from East Tyrone. 5 

the females were almost as common, about 60 per cent, 
having yellowish hind wings. 

On paying a visit to the mountains in early June for 
larvae of Dasychira fascelina I found that many acres of 
heather were brown and dead having been killed by the 
severe frosts, and it was only in sheltered spots that it 
still survived ; but there was no trace of my quarry ; 
although the larvae of Lasiocampa quercus var. callunae 
were in abundance and collected in little groups, here and 
there, wherever the heather showed any signs of life. 

The first Melitaea aurinia was observed on the wing on 
June nth, somewhat later than last year, but from a nest 
of the larvae found earlier in the year, were bred a number 
of interesting forms ; among others : — the var. praeclara, 
Kane ; a tawny red form not unlike the English var. 
artemis ; a form approaching the var. signifera, Kane ; and 
several of the handsome form virgata, Tutt ; and last but 
not least, a number of fine dark forms, quite distinct from 
the form figured as scotica in Kane's " Lepidoptera of 
Ireland." 

When on a visit to Dublin, I spent some time in Mr. 
Halbert's company, in comparing these forms with various 
types in the national collection ; and we found that a 
number of these forms agree with certain specimens labelled 
as hihernica frorh Cromyln Bog, Co. Westmeath ; but as 
there appears to be a great deal of misapprehension as to 
what is the true var. hihernica Birchall, I am at present, 
at any rate, unwilling to state anything more definite 
concerning these local forms. 

Towards the middle of the month a visit was paid to 
the bogs which lie around Lough Neagh and from small 
birch bushes a fine lot of Drepana falcataria were beaten 
out, and on the way home, cocoons of Odonestis potatoria 
were found spun up among the grass and heather. 

At Washing Bay on 29th June, the males of Lycaena 
icarus were flying in some abundance, being of a large size 
and in fine condition ; and likewise a few days later, on 
the low sandy hills which surround the town of Coalisland ; 
I was lucky to get here on the 4th of July a gynandro- 
morphous specimen, in perfect condition, this was captured 



6 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

in almost the only gleam of sunshine that appeared that 
day ; but the largest and most brilliant forms occurred 
on the steep slopes of a remote glen in the mountains 
surrounded by miles of moorland and bog. 

About this time a large number of Acronycta menyanthidis 
were bred from larvae found at Lough Neagh ; and an 
afternoon spent on the mountains showed Plusia interro- 
gationis to be fl\^ing in numbers among the dead heather 
stems ; and at dusk P. festucae was equally abundant at 
3^ellow Iris and Ragged Robin, one of the latter captured, 
having the gold dashes on fore wings united, forming a 
gold blotch across both wings. At Bladder Campion {Silene 
Cncuhahis) P. iota and Hecatera serena were common, as 
well as several Eiipithecia venosata, and among Lychnis 
dinrna numbers of Emmelesia affmitata and E. decolorata. 
In the meadows Epinephele hyperanthns and Zygaena 
lonicerae flew in swarms. 

At Killymoon in early August I obtained a single example 
of Eiipithecia siiccentatireata by beating Mugwort ; and on 
the moors in certain spots the males of Stilhia anomala 
were flying in plenty at dusk. 

Thanks to the kindness of Rev. C. R. N. Burrows, who 
examined the genitalia of a series of local Hydrocciae, I 
am able to record H. crinanensis from Co. Tyrone ; several 
of these were taken at Lough Neagh last autumn (see Irish 
Nat., vol. XXV., 1916, page 163 ) ; also a small number 
captured this year ; in all twenty-two specimens were 
sent him ; seventeen of which prove to be crinanensis, and 
the remainder H. lucens. 

The feature of the autumn months was the wonderful 
abundance of Vanessa to and V. atalanta, the former 
appearing everywhere, even far out on the bogs and high 
up on the mountains. , 

The usual ivy-frequenting insects were abundant, up to 
the late autumn speii of snowy and cold weather. 

Stewartstown. 



igiS. Bullock-Webstek. — Characeae of West Donegal. 7 

THE CHARACEAE OF THE ROSSES : 
WEST DONEGAL. 

BY REV. CANON. G R. BULLOCK-WEBSTER, M.A. 

Last year I reported on the results of a visit to the Fanad 
Peninsula where I spent a fortnight investigating" the 
Characeae of the lakes around Kindrum. 

This year I found an opportunity for paying a visit to 
the Rosses of West Donegal where the many and various 
lakes seem to offer a very favourable field for the 
characeologist. 

My headquarters were on the little island of Iniscoo 
about a mile off the coast, near Burton Port ; and my 
companion, Bishop Montgomery, himself a keen naturalist 
and a student more especially of bird life. 

The weather during our week's sojourn (July 26-31) was 
all that could be desired and we made the most of the 
opportunity. Iniscoo itself provides a small lake, and 
this was carefully examined. On the mainland northward 
we visited (I quote in all cases the nomenclature of the one 
inch Ordnance Survey) Garry Lough and Sally's Lough, 
Loughs Waskel and Mullaghderg ; to the southward 
towards Dunglow, we visited Loughs Leckenagh, Meela, 
Dunglow, and Adrihidbeg ; and to the south-west of 
Dunglow we visited L. Nageeragh, the adjacent lough 
unnamed in the map, L. Beg and Maghery L. This last, 
and Sally's Lough first mentioned, have cuttings which 
connects them with the shore and provides admission of 
sea water at certain states of the tide. For this reason 
they suggested likely localities for such species as C. 
connivens, C. canescens and C. haltica which are to be found 
in brackish waters. But the water proved to be more saline 
than brackish and seemed to yield little or no fresh water 
vegetation. 

The result of these explorations can be summed up in a 
few words. Of the twelve lakes visited nine gave no 
signs whatever of Chara vegetation. The tenth, the 



S The Irish Nahiralist. January, 

unnamed lough adjoining L. Nageeragh, yielded one solitary 
piece of N. transliicens, Agardh. The little lough on 
Iniscoo yielded some excellent specimens of A^. transliicens 
and C. fragilis, Desv. 

The twelfth and the one lough which repaid search was 
L. Mullaghderg. The rock end of this lake is in close 
proximity to the sandhills which run along the coast line 
and it has in consequence a sandy bottom on this northern 
shore. Here C. fragilis and C. aspera, Willd., were growing 
in great abundance, as also another little Chara which 
seems to be an unusual variety or form of C. contraria 
Kuetz. Growing with these was a Nitella long past its 
prime but retaining its heads of ripe fruit which showed 
it to be either A^. flexilis, Agardh, or N. opaca, Agardh. 
Near by, in a pool among the sandhills, grew some few 
specimens of C. hispida, Linn., and C. vulgaris, Linn. This 
embraced the extent of our Chara finds, and certainly does 
not add much to previous records. N. translucens is, I 
think, new to W. Donegal, and so are C. aspera and C. 
fragilis. 

The area which goes by the name of the Rosses is all of 
granitic formation and large granite rocks and boulders 
lie scattered over the country giving it a peculiarly bare 
and desolate appearance. Similar rocks and boulders form 
the beds of many of the lakes. This makes dredging a 
serious difficulty. The drag is constantly liable to become 
wedged between immovable masses of stone, and the danger 
of losing this most indispensable implement makes the 
collector nervous in his use of it. Even with due care 
and a char}^ employment my drag became immovably 
fixed on two occasions and could only be released, once 
by means of a boat, another time by means of a long cord 
carried round to an opposite shore of the lake. 

To imply that a thorough examination of the above 
mentioned lakes was made would be misleading. Boats 
were not available on most of the lakes, and, as I said, 
dredging from the shore was attended by considerable 
risk. But the margins of the lakes were inspected with 
some care and note made of the character of the vegetation 
thrown up on their banks as giving some indication of the 



I9I7- Bullock-Webster. — Characeae of West Donegal. 9 

growth in the deeper and more inaccessible water. I very 
much doubt whether the locaHty yields many other species. 
At any rate there must be numerous localities of Ireland 
still unexplored which would repay search far more 
generously. These notes may serve as a warning to 
botanists who may be attracted by the promising appearance 
of the neighbourhood as portrayed in the Ordnance Survey 
map. 

The poor results of my visit to the Rosses impelled me 
to turn aside on my return journey to Derry and pay 
another visit to Fanad where several records of the 
previous year needed some confirmation, I spent a week 
at Kindrum and was able to collect some fruiting specimens 
of the little Nitella growing in Kindrum Lough referred 
to in my previous paper as probably A^. batrachosperma, 
Braun {N. Nordstedtiana, H. and J. Groves). A careful 
examination of the membrane of the oospore confirms the 
accuracy of Mr. James Groves' opinion. The plant proves 
to be undoubtedly N. batrachosperma, and the discovery 
must be regarded as a very interesting link between its 
two previously recorded stations — the one in the Orkneys, 
and the other in County Kerry. 

The curious variety of A^. flexilis (if such it be) growing 
along the margin of L. Shannagh suggested that other 
treasures might be found on the lake with the aid of a boat. 
I was able with some difficulty to obtain the use of a curragh 
and the services of a boatman skilled in the management 
of this rather frail form of craft. But the lake yielded 
nothing further so far as I could discover, not even specimens 
of the Nitella flexilis beyond the thick bank of growth 
reachable from the shore which I had found last 3'ear. Here 
I found it still growing and fruiting in great abundance and 
maintaining its distinctive and abnormal characteristics. 
This plant and the variety of C. contraria from L. 
MuUaghderg seems to call for some special notice, and I 
hope that Mr. James Groves and I shall be in a position 
to make a communication on the subject in the course of 
a few months. 

I was able to collect some fruiting specimens of the 
Toh-pclla (referred to in Mr. James Groves' and m}^ note 



10 The Irish Xaturalist. January, 

to the Irish Naturalist, August, 1917) growing in L. Ball3^1ar 
which may serve to ehicidate the question of a possible 
species or variety intermediate between '/. glomcrata, Leonh., 
and T. nidifica, Leonh. 

I was also able to add another species to the list of 
Characeae growing in L. Kindrum, viz., A^. opaca in good 
fruiting condition, unless indeed the plant proves to be 
A^. flexilis. In either case it adds another to the yield of 
the lake. It seems impossible to discriminate between 
N . flexilis and N. opaca otherwise than by the monoecious 
character of the former and the dioecious character of the 
latter. In plants of advanced growth where the antheridia 
have dispersed this one distinctive and determining 
characteristic disappears. This is the case with the speci- 
mens both from L. Mallaghderg and from L. Kindrum. 
The doubt can only be settled by collecting plants at an 
earlier period of the year. 

All Hallows Lane, Londmi, E.C. 



NOTES. 

ZOOLOGY. 
The Purple Sea-Urchin at Inishkeel, Co. Donegal. 

The island of Inishkeel lies on the south side of Gweebarra Bay opposite 
the villages of Naran and Portnoo. It can be reached on foot at spring 
tides by walking across the neck of sand which connects it with the 
mainland. On the nortliern side are extensive rock pools, and it was 
in these that Mrs. Johnson first noticed the Purple Sea-Urchin {Slrovgy- 
locenlrotus lividus Lanik). She brought me to the spot and 1 found the 
urchins present in considerable numbers, just as I had seen them at 
Bundoran and Gortmore. I could not, however, find that they had 
bored holes in the rock such as 1 had seen at Bundoran, and I onl}- 
conjecture that they had not been there long enough to make these 
borings. 1 sent a specimen to the National Museum, and Mr. A. R. 
Nichols, M.A., was kind enough to confirm by identification and to 



tgiS. Notes. il 

inform mc that Inishkeel is a new locality for this echinoderm, 
whose distribution is thus carried further north. In his paper on the 
Echinodermata in the Clare Island Survey Mr. Nichols mentions three 
colour varieties, purple, olive green, and reddish. Of these I noticed 
examples of the first and last. 

W. F. Johnson. 
Poyntzpass. 



Great Increase of Butterflies and Moths in Ireland. 

The summer just past has from all accounts been a most wonderful 
one for Butterflies and Moths all over Ireland ; and 1 think those readers 
who are interested in this subject ought to put on record their experiences 
so that we might have in Irish Naturalist a history ot this wonderful 
Butterfly year for future reference. 

It woidd be interesting to know if this great increase was observed all 
over Ireland : whether these Butterflies were bred in this country or 
migrated to it. If they were bred here why should this be a specially 
good year, and where did the stock come from to make it such ? Why 
should rare species like Peacocks suddenly appear in great numbers 
round this district ? 

At Rostrevor large numbers were seen on flowering shrubs round the 
hotel, and at Dunmurry a Privet bush in flower in Mr. Richardson's 
garden used to be so covered with various species, including Peacocks, 
that the flowers were hardly visible. Various Hawk-moths were also 
common, and a friend saw both the Convolvulus and Humming-bird 
Hawks, both of which I understand are rare in the north-east corner 
of Ulster. 

Trusting that the above note may interest and induce some of the many 
entomologists amongst us to relate their experiences for the benefit of 
those like myself not well versed in this science. I am sure Sir Charles 
Langham and the Rev. Mr. Foster could give us some interesting 
information on the subject. 

W. H. Workman. 

Windsor, Belfast. 



Irish Psychid Moths. 

In response to my request for Psychid material from Ireland, Mr. 
Thomas Greer of Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone, was kind enough to look 
for cases during the past season, and on July 26th of this year I received 
from him a few, which he had found in the neighbourhood of Lough 
Neagh. It was evident that these belonged to the " casta " group, but 
it was too late in the season to hope for imagines. Knowing the habits 
of these insects I kept two cases separate and in due course they produced 
numerous larvae. The time for hybernation is now arrived, and in 



12 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

spite of the difficulty in rearing, a considerable number still survive 
and with attention will, I hope, safely pass through the winter. They 
feed carnivorously — and herbaceously — on dead moths, flies. Knot-grass 
and rose leaves. They are indeed probably content with anything 
eatable. The " Casta " group do not appear to be very successful in 
building up their cases in confinement, generally commencing the business 
by robbing the mother-case. My little Irish family have made a little 
use of snippings of my beard, but have not attempted, although material 
is provided, to construct the characteristic " faggot." 

It is not possible, under these conditions, to attempt to name the species. 
I am hoping to get some of them through, and also to have Mr. Greer's 
assistance with further material next year. There are a considerable 
number of these " faggot-like " cases recognised as new by continental 
collectors. Very little is known of them in Great Britain and Ireland, 
and it is quite possible that there are several good species " lumped 
together by us, under the name of casta Pallas — or the older names of 
nitidella, roboricolella, and intermcdiella. I shall be exceedingly grateful 
to any Irish collector of Lepidoptera who will help me in the investigation 
of this Psychid family. 

C. R. X. Burrows. 

Mucking Vicarage, Stanford-le-Hope, Essex. 



The Convolvulus Hawk-Moth in the Counties of Antrim 

and Down. 

In August Major A. Bingham Crabbe wrote to me that a specimen 
of Sphinx convolvidi had been brought to him at Antrim Castle, 
having been captured in the neighbourhood. It was a good deal battered 
but quite recognisable. In October I met Mr. Wakefield Richardson, 
of Moyallen, Co. Down, who told me that he had observed specimens 
of this moth in the greenhouse at Moyallen. I sec by a note in the 
" Ent. Mo. Mag." that specimens have been seen in Yorkshire, Lancashire, 
and Cheshire. It is evident from these observations that there was a 
considerable migration of this Hawk-moth from the continent. 

W. F. Johnson. 
Poyntzpass. 

A Late Wasp. 

I have to-day, November . 20th, taken a male of the Common Wasp 
[Vcspa vulgaris) which flew into the window of a room where I happened 
to be. It is very unusual to see a male on the wing so late in the year, 
and as we had quite sharp frosts last month it is the more remarkable. 

i'uyntzpass W, F. Johnson. 



i9i8. Noles. 13 



Sphinx convolvuli attacked by Larvae of Dipteron. 

During the month of September last (10 16) I was given a specimen 
of S. convolvuli which was captured in a garden near Inchicore, Dublin. 
It was just caught, and seemed unable to move. This struck me as very 
strange, as it is always very lively, and a powerful flier, as I well know 
now having caught several specimens in bygone years in my garden 
here. I kept it in a box intending to set it, and the next time I looked 
at it, it was surrounded by tiny chrysalides, which I thought at the time 
were some species of ichneumon. Most, if not all of them, emerged in 
time. They numbered in all 76 ! 

I think that they are some species of dipteron, as they are unlike 
ichneumons. Fancy the poor moth, doing its best to live, and devoured 
internally by such a number of hungry enemies. I have not read of a 
case of this kind before. It seems wonderful that the larva was able 
to pupate (perhaps, however, the pupa was stung), and besides that to 
emerge in to life in the imago state, while 76 internal foes were preying 
on its body. I have sent some of the specimens to my friend, Mr. 
Halbert, for identification. 

William W. Flemyng. 
Coolfin, Portlaw, Co. Waterford. 



The insects bred from the above mentioned Hawk-moth are all referable 
to a single species, a small two-winged fly belonging to the genus Phora, 
so that Canon Flemyng is right in supposing them to be Diptera. 
Unfortunately only one of the specimens is in a good state of preservation, 
the others are spoiled by a white powder through being kept loose in a 
box with the puparia from which they emerged. This specimen has 
been sent to Mr. Collin for examination. I have little doubt, however, 
that the fly is a species called Phora rufipes Meigen, an identification 
which I hope to have verified as soon as Mr. Collin has time to examine 
the insect. 

Pkora rufipes is recorded b)^ Walker [Insecta Bntannica : Diptera) as a 
very abundant fly in England, Scotland, and Ireland. According to 
Schiner (" Fauna Austriaca ") the larva is parasitic on Lepidoptera, and 
is also found in rotten potatoes and in fungi. The same authority states 
that the life-histories of several species of Phora are known ; the larvae 
live in decayed vegetable matter, and some are parasitic on other insects. 
The genus Phora is numerous in species ; more than thirty kinds ar 
included in Mr. Verrall's " List of British Diptera " (1901). 

National Museum, Dublin. 

J. N. Halbert, 



14 



The Irish Nafurah'sf. 



Sunfish at Larne Harbour. 



January, 



It may interest readers of the Irish Naturalist to know of the capture 
of a Sunfish, Orthagorisciis mola Schn. off Larne Harbour on September 
17th. It weighs just over two cwts. and was exhibited in the shop of 
Messrs. Kangecroft, Ltd., Corn Market. 



J. A. Sidney Stendall. 



Belfast. 



Stray Bird Notes, Autumn, 1917. 

My experiences coincide very much with those of Mr. C. B. Moffat 
and Mr. Burkitt. First as to the arrival of the migrants. My earliest 
date is Swallow, April 23, followed by Chiff-chaff, April 23, and Willow 
Warbler, April 26, Sand Martin, April 30. These were the only migrants 
noted in April, but the Cuckoo and Corncrake were both observed on 
May I. The Wheatear, which generaly arrives here about the end of 
March, I could not find at its usual haunt, and only observed one on 
September 27 ! The Spotted Flycatcher was only seen by me on June 
II, whilst our rarer visitors, the Grasshopper Warbler, the Quail and the 
Turtle Dove were not observed at all. I spent July and August in 
England, and in the first week of July at Stoke Ash near Ipswich, in the 
small lawn at the Pai'sonage I observed the Blackcap, the Garden Warbler, 
Chiff-chaff, Willow Warbler, Whitethroat, the Tree Pipit and the Turtle 
Dove, but not until August 11 did I, for the first time in the year, note 
the Gold-crest. 

Some of the folk names of the birds in Fngland are very curious, such 
as the " Groundoven " for the Willow Warbler, and the " Hayjack " 
for the Linnet. The " Thricecock " Mr. Warde Parke thinks may mean 
the " Mistle Thrush," but I have never yet met anyone who could explain 
the meaning of the " Swiney," by which porcine appellation the Meadow 
Pipit is always known in Balbriggan. 



Charles W. Benson. 



Balbriggan, October 10. 



Green Sandpiper in King's County. 

It may be of interest to you to know that I identified a Green Sandpiper, 
Totaniis ochropns, adult, sex unknown, seen on the wing on Ballyheishall 
bog, near lulentlerry, King's County, on November 15th, 1017- I hope 
to meet with it again later in the year. 1 have not hitherto seen any 
of these birds in this loralitv. 



Hei-PN M. Rajt K6RR- 



Fiathmoyle, Fdenderry 



iQi8. Notes. 15 

Woodcock marked in Ireland and recovered in Shetland. 

In the Irish Naturalist, August, 1917, I recorded that a Woodcock having 
a ring on its foot endorsed " T. H. Sligo 4," had met with its death in 
Shetland. As the result of that note, Mr. J. P. Burkitt advised me to 
communicate with Mr. T. C. Bracken, Temple House, Ballymote, who 
has informed me that the bird was one of four ringed at Temple House 
on the 1 2th of May, 191-1, and that it was about a fortnight old when 
marked. It is impossible to give any satisfactory explanation for the 
presence of an adult Irish-bred Woodcock in Shetland on the 7th of July. 

Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. Wm. Eagle Clarke, 

Sandwich Terns breeding in Co. Qalway. 

Twenty terns of this species were counted in one group on Mutton 
Island, Co. Galway, on June 12th, 191 7, and on June 17th there were 
live nests containing eggs. I am indebted to Mr. Glanville for this 
interesting information. This is, I believe, the first occurrence of the 
Sandwich Tern nesting in Galway which is the third county on the west 
coast of Ireland in which it is known to breed. 

Bloomfield, Hollymount, Co. Mayo. Robert F. Ruttledge. 

Owls and Sparrow Hawks clapping their Wings. 

I have read with much interest Mr. J. P. Burkitt's remarks on the Long- 
eared Owl (vol. xxvi., pp. 161-163), and with reference to his comments 
upon the habit these birds have of clapping their wings, I may say that 
I have noted this upon several occasions during the past thirty or forty 
years. It is, I have no doubt, a normal phase of the nuptial flight, and 
the sound produced by the striking together of the wings above the back 
can be distinctly heard at a distance of at least twenty or thirty yards. 
I am almost certain that both sexes indulge in the habit, just as in the 
case of Pigeons for example, but at any rate I can answer for it that 
upon one occasion it was a female Long-eared Owl that clapped. 

But the habit is not confined to one species only. I have repeatedl}' 
heard and seen the Tawny Owl clap its wings in precisely the same 
manner. Upon one occasion, too, I saw a female Sparrow-Hawk do it, 
when indulging in the rather owl-like flight which is the habit of her 
sex at the pairing season, her mate meanwhile soaring overhead ; while 
the Nightjar is well known to clap its wings during its love-flights. 

When, as boys, we used to keep pigeons, it was customary to speak 
of the slow-flapping flight of a bird, during which the wings are often 
loudly clapped, as " owling." The origin of the expression, or of its 
application, I do not know, but it descended to us from previous pigeon- 
keepers, and was no new invention. Possibly it may be in common 
use through the country. In that case may it not have originated, in 
times long past, from a knowledge possessed by its coiners of the fact 
that Owls clapped their wings in similar leisurely fashion ? 

Alston, Cumberland, George Bolam. 



i6 The Irish Naturalist. January, 1918. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 



DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

November 14. — The Club met at Leinster House, the President (N. 
CoLGAN, M.R.I. A.) in the chair. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed a preparation of the male reproductive 
organs of the Warble-fly {Hypoderma hovis) and a section through the 
testes. In the latter some of the details of the spermatogenesis could 
be distinguished, and chromatic cytoplasmic inclusions such as the 
mitochondria were recognisable. 

D. M'Ardle exhibited Dicranella heteromalla, Schp. showing the pale 
yellow seta and capsule with rostrate lid, peristome with large red teeth, 
cleft to the middle into two or three divisions. He also showed the male 
plants which are seldom seen, and were collected recently on the Dublin 
Mountains at Killakee ; they are smaller and stouter, and their leaves 
are less falcate, and form a terminal coma around the conspicuous oval 
inflorescence. In this stage they may be passed over by the student 
for a species of Pleuridium, and would require to be dissected for the 
antheridia. A drawing of Pleuridium alternifolinm was shown for 
comparison. This interesting silky-leaved moss is common in Ireland, 
easily identified by the yellow seta when in fruit. 

H. A. Lafferty exhibited the oospores of a species of Phytophthora 
parasitic on Tomato, Aster, Petunia and Wall-flower seedlings, the disease 
being recognised by the falling over of attacked plants. Up to the present 
the oospores have only been obtained in pure cultures and their method 
of formation is identical with that described for Phytophthora erythroscptica, 
the oogonium (female) entering the antheridium (male) at its base, growing 
up through it, eventually bursting out at the top where it swells out 
forming its oosphere and later its oospore. Pure culture studies and 
infection trials have proved that the fungus is quite distinct from any 
of the previously described species of Phytophthora. 

W. F. GuNN exhibited a slide of Tubifera ferruginosa, a species of 
Mycetozoa. It was found in August last, in the plasmodium stage, on 
a decaying fir-stump near Rathdrum, and was then of the less usual 
yellow colour. The plasmodium is usually of a watery white colour, 
but, in rare cases, bright yellow. As in some other genera of this group 
of fungi the sporangia combine to form a sort of compound colony known 
as an aethalium. The slide showed a vertical section, and clearly 
exhibited the brown sporangia, with their iridescent walls and contained 
spores, seated upon the white spongy hypothallus. 



Irish Naturalist, vol. xxvii. 




To face page 17.] 



February, 1918. The Irish Naturalist. 17 

EDWARD HULL 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

The death of Professor Edward Hull on October i8th, 1917, 
in his eighty-ninth year, severs one more link with the 
pioneers of geological science in the nineteenth century. 
To the last he retained mental and considerable bodily 
vigour, and he often recalled pleasant memories of his 
public life in Ireland. His career and sympathies are well 
represented in his " Reminiscences of a Strenuous Life " 
(London : H. Rees, 1910), published when he was already 
over eighty years of age. His works on " The Coal-fields of 
Great Britain, with descriptions of the Coal-fields of our 
Indian and Colonial Empire and of other parts of the 
world " (fifth edition, 1905), and on " The Physical Geo- 
logy and Geography of Ireland " (2nd edition, 1891) have 
made his name known to man}^ who never enjoyed his 
courteous friendship. His " Treatise on the Building and 
Ornamental Stones of Great Britain and foreign countries," 
published in 1872, has long served as a w^ork of reference 
for architects and engineers. 

Edward Hull was born at Antrim on May 21st, 1829, 
when his father was curate in charge of Antrim parish. 
While at school at Lucan in Co. Dublin, it was proposed 
that he should enter the ministry of the Church of Ireland, 
and he attended in consequence a class in the Irish language, 
as well as studying Hebrew and the more usual classics. 
Perhaps we owe the discriminating Irish work of his daughter 
Eleanor in some measure to this early range of study. But 
Hull's attention became fixed on science through the 
lectures of Surgeon Lover, who, in days that we are apt to 
look on as dark ages for education, brought apparatus out 
from Dublin and inspired the boys at Lucan with a love for 
natural philosophy. A career in engineering was thus 
opened, and again a brilliant teacher, Dr. Thomas Oldham, 
at Trinity College, Dublin, directed the bent of a receptive 
and industrious mind. As Hull writes with unaffected 
gratitude, in place of enginecrinf^, " Providence had some- 



i8 The Irish Naturalist. February, 

thing better in store for me." Oldham recommended him to 
De la Beche, who had organised the Geological Surve}^ of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and his first official work was 
with J. Beete Jukes, in 1850, among the mountain ridges 
of North Wales. 

From the outset he was thus fortunate in his friends, 
and he clearly inspired them with confidence. ]\Iuch of his 
time in England and Scotland was spent on areas of Car- 
boniferous rocks, and this led to his serving on two suc- 
cessive Royal Commissions on our coal-reserves (1871 and 
igoi). The comparatively early death of Jukes in 1869 
left a vacancy in the directorship of the Irish branch 
of the Geological Survey and also in the professorship of 
geology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland. Sir 
Roderick Murchison recommended Hull for both posi- 
tions, and he held them until his retirement in 1890. 
The collections of the Geological Survey were during 
most of that period housed in the building occupied by the 
College in St. Stephen's Green, and the long association of 
the two branches of official geological work, educational and 
exploratory, is recorded in the excellent series of diagrams 
and sections illustrating Irish geology in the possession of 
the Royal College of Science. 

In the winter of 1883-4, Hull was chosen by the com- 
mittee of the Palestine Exploration Fund to investigate 
the geology of Sinai and southern Palestine, and his report 
appeared in 1886. In 1884 he published a narrative of the 
expedition, under the title of " Mount Seir, Sinai, and 
Western Palestine." These observations served to intensify 
his interest in biblical histor}-^ and research. 

More than 150 contributions to scientific journals, 
from 1855 onwards, are recorded under Hull's name in 
the Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers. He 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, before reaching 
the age of forty, in 1867. His success in organising the 
completion of the one-inch geological map of Ireland, 
with the accompanying memoirs, before the date of his 
retirement, led to a certain brevity of treatment in some 
of the later memoirs ; his artistic taste, however, which 
was evidenced in landscape-sketches in his youth, guided 



igiS. Edward Htdl. 19 

the map-colourists in a manner that remains unexcelled, 
and it is to be regretted that zeal for uniformity has intro- 
duced the cruder tints of British maps in later years. 
Irish geology has from time to time been the victim of 
obsessions. Just as Jukes in his last years sought to over- 
throw the Devonian system, and succeeded in impressing 
his views on G. H. Kinahan, so Hull felt drawn towards 
marking out, on very shadowy indications, a line between 
a Dingle Series and an Old Red Sandstone throughout the 
south. Undated " revisions " were thus made in a large 
number of sheets, the bibliography and collation of 
which will prove a complete puzzle to librarians. For- 
tunately, these changes are purely of stratigraphical 
interest, and in no way affect the economic and practical 
value of the sheets concerned. It is well, however, that 
the southern maps as originally issued should be preserved 
for comparison with those of later date. 

Hull took a keen interest in Glacial problems. In 
common with many geologists trained in England and 
profoundly influenced by Lyell, he regarded the deposits 
of drift as aqueous rather than as directly due to the melting 
of stagnant continental ice. But he rightly urged that 
Ireland revealed evidence of an interglacial epoch, and his 
work on the correlation of the sands and g-ravels of the 
eastern coast tends to be strengthened and confirmed by 
later observations. 

In his " Reminiscences," Hull gives an agreeable picture 
of life in Dublin when Sir Robert Kane, Dr. Johnstone 
Stoney, and Sir Robert Ball — to name no others — were 
prominent in the scientific life of the metropolis. Work 
has since tended to be more specialised and perhaps more 
truly " strenuous " ; but it is pleasant to think that many 
of the institutions to which he refers stiU serve as grounds 
of meeting, and that the Scientific Club still brings together 
in social converse workers in very diverse fields. 

Hull married in 1857 the daughter of Dr. C. T. Cooke 
of Cheltenham, and had four daughters and two sons, most 
of whom survive him. 

Grenville a. J. Cole. 

A 2 



20 The Irish Naturalist. February, 



LUSITANIA AND KERRY: A BOTANICAL 

PARALLEL. 

BY NATHANIEL COLGAN, M.R.I. A. 

The flora of Portugal, the classic Lusitahia, has had a 
peculiar interest for Irish botanists ever since Edward 
Forbes in his well-known Geological Survey Memoir of 
1846 drew attention to those western and south-western 
Irish plants, which are usually spoken of as the Lusitanian 
group. The existence of this interest coupled with the fact 
that the Portuguese language and literature are almost 
completely neglected in this country may be pleaded as 
sufficient excuse for giving here a short abstract of the 
results yielded by a botanical exploration of the highest 
mountain region of Portugal made so long ago as 1881. 
With the Relatorio or report of this survey, a copy of which 
recently came into my possession, most Irish botanists are 
probably unfamiliar. It is a folio brochure of 133 pages, in 
the Portuguese vernacular, printed at Lisbon in 1883, and 
drawn up by Dr. Julio Augusto Henriques, Professor of 
Botany in the University of Coimbra, and one of the native 
botanists who carried out the survey. The region dealt with 
is the Serra da Estrella, the mountain chain, chiefly granitic, 
which stretches north-eastward from Coimbra for about 
50 miles, and attains a height of rather more than 6,500 
feet under 40 1 degrees of north latitude. 

The survey, which included botanical exploration 
amongst its objects, w^as carried out under the auspices of 
the Lisbon Geographical Society, and dealt very exhaus- 
tively with the natural history of the region. The inter- 
pretation given to that essentially flexible term, Natural 
History, was even freer than it received in our happily 
accomplished Clare Island Survey ; for in addition to the 
usual branches of botany, zoology, geology, meteorology, 
and anthropology, the Portuguese survey had sections 
dealing witli chemistry, hydrography, lake soundings, 



i9iS. CoLGAN. — Lusitania and Kerry. 21 

zootechnics (cattle-breeding) and — ophthalmology. The 
personnel of the expedition included a major of engineers 
and an infantry lieutenant in charge of camping arrange- 
ments, a cook, scullions (adjutantes de cozinha), a bugler, 
and a police force, consisting of an officer and six infantry 
men. \Mld as West Ireland may be it seems clear that the 
Serra da Estrella is a good deal wilder, or, at all events, 
was so in 1881. No doubt the pastoral population of its 
upper regions have little claim to be considered gentle 
shepherds. 

The Botanical Report, which is a very full one, is made 
up of three sections. The first gives a short sketch of the 
progress of botanical research in the Serra ; the second 
defines the vertical zones and describes their floral charac- 
teristics ; and the third forms a catalogue, with localities, 
of all the species which ascend above the lowest zone. 
The precise limits covered by the survey, though nowhere 
definitety stated, appear from the various localities 
mentioned to have included both slopes of the Serra from 
Coimbra to the summit, or, roughly, 720 square miles. 
This corresponds very closely with the combined areas of 
Districts L, II., III., and IV. of Mr. Scully's recently 
published Flora of County Kerry, and the very full details 
given both by Mr. Scully and by Dr. Henriques, especially 
as to vertical range of species, enables us to compare the 
flora of the extreme south-west mountain region of Ireland 
with that of the northern mountain region of Portugal, 
lying some 12 degrees of latitude further southward. As 
might have been expected, the continental and more 
southern region has the richer flora, the Serra da Estrella 
giving a total of 1,230 phanerogams and vascular crypto- 
gams to a South Kerry total of 750. ^ 

Dr. Henriques divides his area into six vertical zones, 
the three lower agrarian, the three upper alpine. These 
zones which are determined by their characteristic plants 
are not of equal extent. They vary from 100 to 700 metres, 



\ The Characeac, which are not included in the Portuguese report, 
have been excluded from the South Kerry total. 



22 The Irish Naturalist. February, 

the Agrarian Zones, Lower, Middle, and Upper (I., II., and 
III.) together ranging from sea-level to 1,500 metres, or say, 
5,000 feet, the three Alpine Zones (IV., V., and VI.), Lower, 
Middle, and Upper, oecupying the remaining 1,500 feet up 
to the summit. 

It is chiefly with the Alpine Zones we are concerned here, 
yet a few words may be given to the Agrarian Zones in 
which the great bulk of the Serra da Estrella flora is found. 
The Lower Agrarian ranging from sea-level to 1,300 feet, is 
the home of the Mediterranean flora, and in its total of 
1,030 species of phanerogams and vascular cryptogams are 
included the sub-tropical American aliens the Agave and 
the Nopal or Indian Fig (Opuntia) which flourish up to 
nearly 1,000 feet and form hedges round the vineyards and 
olive groves. This is the zone of the Orange, the Lemon, 
the Vine, the Olive and the Fig. Here, too, in the lowest 
levels Rice is largely cultivated, to the great detriment 
of the public health, as Dr. Henriques says [com grandc 
detrimento da saude publica). In the Middle Agrarian 
Zone (II.) ranging from 1,300 to 2,600 feet, the Castanheiro 
or Edible Chestnut prevails, Millet [Paniciim iniliaceum) is 
largely cultivated and wide tracts are covered with various 
species of Cistus or Rock-rose. In this zone our rare 
Asplenium lanceolatiim finds its upper limit at 1,650 feet, 
and many familiar Irish and Kerry species exhaust their 
vertical range at about 2,300 feet, e.g., Radiola linoides, 
Trifoliuni arvense, Peplis Portida, Lcontodon hispidus, 
Solanum Didcamara, Lycopus curopaeiis and Scirpus Savii. 
In the Upper Agrarian Zone (III.), ranging from 2,600 to 
about 4,900 feet, the Common Bracken and the culture of 
Rye cease at about 4,800 feet, and a monotonous aspect is 
given to the landscape by the dominance of the prostrate, 
ashen-grey vegetation of Hali)niiim occidentalc, one of the 
Cistineae. The Arbutus, the Croumcahinye of Kerry, 
the Madronheiro of the Portuguese, and Madroiio of the 
Cantabrian highlanders, ascends into this zone, and so at- 
tains at least 2,600 feet, though its precise limits are not 
given in the report. Here, too, potato cultivation reaches 
its upper limit at 3,250 feet, and one of the economically 
valuable Esparto grasses, Macrochloa arenaria, becomes 



igiS. CoLGAx. — Liisitania and Kerry. 23 

abundant. Amongst the common Irish species which 
exhaust their vertical range in this zone at about 3,200 
feet are Viola sylvatica, Samhiicus nigra, Senecio sylvaticus 
and Crepis virens. 

Passing into the Lower Alpine Zone (IV.), 4,900 to 
5,750 feet, we find that the flora has fallen from 1,030 
species in Zone I. to a total of 114, with the result that 
the Irish or Northern element in the vegetation begins 
to emerge, chiefly in such alpine or bog or marsh plants as 
Allosorus crispus, Alsine venia, Saxifraga stellaris, Drosera 
rotundifolia, Hieracium nmrormn, Mcnyanthes trifoliata, 
Juniperiis nana, and Molinia caerulea. Three of our most 
exclusively calcifuge species. Digitalis purpurea, Lttzula 
maxima, and Blechnum Spicant, which range in Kerry 
respectively to 2,900, 3,400, and 3,150 feet, here find their 
upper limit at 5,000 feet, while the Birch [Betula pnhescens) 
ranging in Kerr}^ to 1,050 feet, here ceases at 5,100. The 
Iberian and Mediterranean heaths now become dominant, 
appearing in the following ascending order, Erica itmhellata, 
E. arborea, E. aragonensis, and E. lusitanica. The last of 
these, accompanied by our common Ling (Calluna), spreads 
up to 5,800 feet, and the Dwarf Juniper (/. nana), the 
Zimbro of the Portuguese, is conspicuous, rooting in rocky 
ground, and spreading in dense, flat sheets over a sward 
which is formed almost exclusively of our familiar calcifuge 
mountain grass, Nardus stricta. An aquatic species, 
Sparganiimi nalans, frequent in our mountain lakes from 
Kerry to Donegal, but apparently confined in Portugal to 
the Serra da Estrella, makes its first appearance in this 
zone, and re-appears higher up in Zone V. in the Lagoa da 
Salgadeira at 5,900 feet. Confined to Zone IV.. are two 
alpine Narcissi peculiar to the Peninsula, A^. nivalis Graells 
and N. riipicola Dufour. 

In the Middle Alpine Zone, V., 5,750 to 6,100 feet, two 
other Irish and Kerry species, Alchemilla alpina and Hiera- 
cium vidgatum. make their first appearance in the Serra, 
and four others, our common Male Fern, Sedum anglicum, 
Carex echinata and Deschampsia flexuosa reach their upper 
limit at about 5,800 feet. The most characteristic of our 



24 The Irish Naturalist. February, 

Irish Lusitanian species, Saxifraga lunbrosa, so protean in 
its Kerry hybrids, re-appears in this zone after a long interval 
at its upper limit of 5,800 feet. Frequent with us at sea- 
level in Kerry and ]\Iayo, it is quite sub-alpine in the Penin- 
sula, and in the Serra Dr. Henriques places its lower limit 
at 2,300 feet. Two Gentians here make their first ap- 
pearance, the alpine G. liitea which finds its upper limit in 
this zone, and G. Pneumonanthe w^hich ascends into the 
Summit Zone VI., where it is one of the most characteristic 
and abundant species and has been observed by every visitor 
to the Serra {observado por todos os que teem visitado a Serra). 
' In the vSummit or Upper Alpine Zone (VI.), 6,100 to 
0,500 feet, the flora is reduced to forty-five species, and 
of these no less than nineteen or 42 per cent, are Irish, 
eighteen being South Kerry species. The nature of the 
soil is well shown by the fact that ten of these nineteen 
species are strongly marked calcifuges, such as Polygala 
serpyllacea, Viola palustris, Cotyledon Umbilicus , Saxifraga 
stellaris, Junciis squarrosus and Nardus stricta. In the com- 
bined floras of the tw^o upper zones, V. and VI., the pro- 
portion of Irish species is quite as large. It is thirty-nine 
out of ninety-one, or almost 43 per cent., only one of the 
thirty-nine, Allosonis crispus, the Parsley Fern, being absent 
from South Kerry. 

The influence of increase of elevation expressing itself 
through climatic change is shown not only in the substi- 
tution of northern for southern plant types, but in the rate 
of impoverishment in the flora. Taking the upper 1,500 
feet or so of the Kerry highlands and of the Serra da 
Estrella, the areas lying above 2,000 feet in Kerry and above 
5,000 feet in Portugal, we find a remarkably close agreement 
in the rate of diminution of the floras when compared in 
each case with the floras of the immediately preceding 
lower zone. A rise of 1,414 feet in Kerry reduces the flora 
from 173 to forty-eight species, a loss of 125 or 72*2 per 
cent. : a similar, or not greatly dissimilar rise (1,570 feet) 
in the Serra reduces its flora from 166 to forty-five, a loss of 
121 or 72*9 per cent. In other words, taking impoverish- 
ment in floral diversity as a criterion of climate, the climate 



igiS. 



CoLGAN. — Lusitania and Kerry. 



25 



of the Kerry Highlands between 2,000 and 3,414 feet 
finds its counterpart in the cHmate of the Serra da Estrella 
between roughly 5,000 and 6,500 feet. 

In the Portuguese report the distribution of the species 
through the chief Natural Orders is given, and this enables 
us to compare the systematic constitution of the southern 
flora with that of extreme South-west Ireland. In the 
following table the numbers and percentages to the total 
floras of the species in the ten largest orders of South Kerry, 
Districts I., II., III., and IV. of Mr. Scully's Flora, are 
given along with the corresponding numbers and per- 
centages of the same orders in the Serra da Estrella, the 
serial numbers i to 10 denoting the order of magnitude 
for each region. The contrast between the two floras, one 
northern and insular, the other southern and continental, 
comes out clearly in this table. In the continental flora 
Leguminosae take third place in magnitude, in Kerry they 
take tenth. On the other hand, Cyperaceae and Filices 
standing respectively third and fifth in Kerry, sink to the 
ninth and tenth places in the Serra. 



Proportions of the Principal Natural Orders to the 

Total Floras in South Kerry and in the 

Serra da Estrella. 







South 


Kerry 


SjiRRA DA Hsi 


RliLL/ 










Per 








Per 






Species. 


Cent. 


Species. 




Cent. 


1. 


Compohiitae 


60 


or 


8.0 


I . 


148 


or 


12.0 


2. 


Gramineae 


55 




7-3 


2 . 


113 




9.0 


3- 


Cyperaceae 


55 




7.3 


9* 


35 




2.8 


4- 


Caryophyllcae 


30 




4.0 


5 • 


47 




3.82 


5- 


Filices 


. . 28 




3.7 


10. 


21 




1.7 


6. 


Cruciferae 


28 




3.7 


7 • 


44 




5-5^ 


7- 


Umbelli ferae 


27 




3.6 


4- 


55 




4.3 


8. 


Scrophulariiieae . 


26 




3.4(^ 


6« 


45 




3. 06 


9- 


Labiatae 


24 




3.^ 


8. 


44 




3.58 


10. 


Leguminosae 


21 




2.8 


3- 


100 




8.1 



\ERRY. 


Serra 


Feet. 


Feet. 


3,120 


6,500 


1,800 


5,800 


2,300 


5.900 


^,050 


6,200 


1.4^5 


6,200 


1.450 


6,200 


1.450 


^.350 


1,000 


6,200 


5^5 


3,600 


1.700 


2.350 


400 


1,900 


3.150 


6,200 


1,200 


2,600 


1,800 


6,100 



26 TJic Irish Naturalist. February, 

The increase in vertical range in the Serra da Estrella 
of certain species which exhaust their upward range in 
Kerry is shown in the following table : — 



Viola palustris 
Ilex Aquifolium 
Pyrus Aucuparia 
Drosera rotundifolia ^ 
Epilobium palustre 
Conopodium denudatuiii 
Carum verticillatum . . 
Wahleiibergia hederacea 
Arbutus Unedo 
Sibthorpia europaea . . 
Simethis bicolor 
Cystopteris fragilis 
Osmunda regalis 
Juniperus nana 

There is one noteworthy defect in this Report — the total 
absence of any reference to Ireland, although the general 
European distribution of each species is given in the 
Catalogue. x\t a first glance it would seem that the fre- 
quently recurring word " Inglaterra " is intended, in a slip- 
shod way not unusual with Continental writers, to include 
the British Isles. Further examination, however, shows 
that this explanation is hardly admissible, since under 
Juniperus nana, " Escocia " and " Inglaterra " are dis- 
tinguished. In the distribution of Simdhis hicolor and 
Arbutus Unedo not even Inglaterra is mentioned ; so one is 
forced to conclude that the author was quite ignorant 
of Irish botany. This defect must detract from the value 
and interest of this excellent report for the compatriots 
of Dr. Henriques, though of little consequence to Irish 
botanists. 

Sandycuv'C, Co. Dublin. 



i According to Dr. Henriques this species occurs in all tiucc Alpine 
Zones wherever Sphagnum grows {Em iodos os logares onde vive Sphagnum) 



19 18. . Bi?ADE-BiRKS. — iSiotes OH Irish Myriapoda. 27 

NOTES ON MYRIAPODA. Vlll.i 
RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE IRISH FAUNA. 

BY HILDA K. BRADE-BIRKS, M.SC, M.B., CH.B., L.R.C.P., 
M.R.C.S., AND THE REV. S. GRAHAM BRADE-BIRKS, M.SC. 

Irish naturalists very kindly continue to place material 
at our disposal from time to time, and in the course of 
diagnosis we have recently met with one centipede and two 
millipedes previously unrecorded for Ireland, namely : — 

Chilopoda : 

Geophilus insculpius Attems. 

DiPLOPODA : 

Brachyiiilus {Microbrachyiiilus) littoralis Verhoeff. 
Brachydesmus super us mosellanus Verhoeff. 

Geophilus insciilptus Attems. 

We recently recorded this species as new to Britain (2), 
and it has been sent to us from Ireland by Mr. Nevin H. 
Foster, who took a female in Hillsborough Park, Co. Down, 
4 iii. 1916. The same collector has also sent an example 
from Hillsborough, collected in July, 1917. We must with- 
draw our own Irish record of G, proximus from Sugarloaf, 
Bray, Co. Wicklow (3), as this animal afterwards turned out 
to be G. insculptus. 

We think it probable that most Irish records of G. 
proximus will need the same correction. Dr. Henry W. 
Brolemann, the eminent French zoologist, f;j litt. referring to 
Mr. Evans's reference (5) to his note in the Irish Naturalist 
(4) seems to doubt the validity of his own diagnosis of G. 
proximus, as it was evidently made at a time when he was 
not familiar with G. insculptus ; so, until authenticated 
examples of G. proximus are definitely recorded for the 
British Isles, we are afraid that this species must be regarded 



*An earlier paper in this series, the third, also appeared in this 
journal in August, 1916, the other papers have appeared in various 
other scientific periodicals. 



28 The Irish Naturalist. February, 

as belonging more particularly to the central states of 
Europe, though Dr. Brolemann says, inliti. " Maybe, after 
all, pyoxiniHS occurs in your country." 

Attems gives excellent figures of his species (i). 

UracJiyiHliis {MicrohracJiyiitlus) littoralis Verhoeff. 

This species is probably not uncommon in the British 
Isles, where it appears to have been much confused with 
Julus pusillus Leach. 

A male was collected at Gawley's Gate, Co. Antrim, by 
Mr. Foster, on May 30th, 1917. Three females, probably 
referable to the same species, had been taken by Mr. A. W. 
Stelfox and ^Ir. Foster two days earlier, at Baltymagee, 
Co. Down. 

Brachydesmus siipcrus mosellaniis Verhoeff. 

We have received specimens of this variety, which \\'\\\ 
probably prove to be common in these islands, collected 
in considerable numbers by Mr. Foster in May, 1917, and 
by Mr. Stelfox in November, 1917, at Baltymagee, Co. Down, 
where it constitutes a pest in the latter's garden. Mr. 
Foster also took it at Gawley's Gate, Co. Antrim, on 
May 30th, 1917. 

This variety occurs in England (2), and is figured by 
Dr. Verhoeff (6 and 7). . 

We have also received several interesting specimens of 
Diplopoda from Ireland, which we have been unable to 
identify in the absence of adult males. 

Since our former note in this Journal (3) we have 
examined the following tubes of material bearing on the 
subject of that paper : — 

65O. Lithobius lapidicola^ one female, Murray's Wood, Coalisland, Co. 

Tyrone, 3. vi. iyi6, INIr. N. H. Foster. 
704 L. lapidicola, two females, one male, near Lough Dan, Co. Wicklow, 

6. X. 1913, Miss J. Stephens. [Nat. Mus., Ireland, material]. 
712. L. Duboscqui, one female, Antrim Churchyard, Co. Antrim, 2. ix. 

1916, Mr. N. H. Foster. 
720. L. lapidicola, one female, two males. The Spa, Bally nahinch, Co. 

Down, 8. V. 1915, Mr. N. H. Foster. [Nat. Mus., Ireland, material : 

X09— 1915J- 



I 



igiS. Brade-Birks. —.Vo/fs on Irish Myriapoda. 29 

721. L. lapidicola, six males, Gleniff, Co. Sligo, 17. iv. 191 4. Mr. N. 

H. Foster. [Nat. Mus., Ireland, material : 373 — 1914]- 
919. L. lapidicola, one example, Ballymagee, Co. Down, 28. v. 191 7, 

Messrs. A. W. Stelfox and N. H. Foster. 
945. L. Duboscqui, one male, Hillsborough Park, Co. Down, July, 1917, 

Mr. N. H. Foster. 

References. 

1. Attems, C. G. — " Die Myriopoden Steiermarks " ; Sitz. der Math.- 

Nat. Classe K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, civ., i. {1895), pp. 117 et seq. 
Figs. 

2. Br.^de, Hilda K., and Birks, S. Graham. — " Notes on Myriapoda, 

n. — Some Brief Records " ; Latics. and Chesh. Nal. (July, 1916), 
p. 82. 

3. Brade, Hilda K, and Birks, S. Graham. — " Notes on Myriapoda, 

in. — Two Irish Chilopods " ; Irish Nat., vol. xxv. (1916), pp. 121 
et seq. 

4. Brolemann, Henry W. — " Lithobiits variegatus Leach " ; Irish Nal., 

vol. V. (1896), pp. \2 et seq. 

5. Evans, William. — " The Myriapods of the Forth Area " ; Proc. Roy. 

Phys. Soc. Edinh., vol. xvi. (1906), pp. 405 et seq. 

6. Verhoeff, C. W. — Fin Beitrag zur mitteleuropaischen Diplopoden- 

Fauna, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., Bd. xxxvi., i. (1891), pp. 115 et seq.. 
Figs. 

7. Verhoeff, C. W.— Ueber Diplopoden. Furopiiische Polydesmiden. 

Zool. Anz., Band xxxii. (1908), pp. 337 et seq., Figs. 

16 Bank Street, Darwen, Lancashire. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

December 5. — Public Lecture in the Royal Dublin Society's 
Theatre, Sir F. Moore (President) in the chair. Prof. A. Francis 
Dixon, Sc.D., lectured on " The Gorilla and its Place in the Animal 
Kingdom," indicating clearly the probable relationships between the 
genera of the large Apes. The audience was numerous and appreciative. 

Recent gifts include a pair of Ring Doves from Mr. R. Cunningham. 
Two Lion cubs have been born in the Gardens, " Red Hugh " and 
" Maive " being the parents. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

December 12. — N. Colgan (President) in the chair. 

R. C. Taylor showed sections of lignite from Carrig-a-pulliar, 
Portrush. It occurs in a layer 10-12 feet thick interbedded between the 
two great basaltic masses of Co. Antrim, provisionally termed the " upper 
and lower basalts of our geological maps," 



30 The Irish Naturalist. February, 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed preparations of tlie jaws of the nymph 
of a mayfly (F.cdyurus) demonstrating the details of structure in the 
maxillae and lal>ium. 



BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

November 20. — Rev. A. Adams, B.A., gave a lecture entitled 
" Prehistoric Settlements on the Shores of Lough Xeagh," with reference 
to the northern shore. The lecturer exhibited a series of stone implements 
found from time to time during the past twenty years along the northern 
shore of Lough Ncagh, from Glenavy to Toome Bar. The Neolithic 
settlers occupied sites especially near the mouths of the Crumlin, Sixmile- 
water, and Maine rivers. The relics found at the Maine River comprised 
flint flakes dressed as scrapers, knives, picks, and chisels ; also some 
waterworn specimens which had been rechipped in later time. The 
most extensive and important site was Toome Bar, for here at this ford 
proofs were obtained of Neolithic, Bronze, and Early Iron Age workers. 
The most unique implement from Toome was a socketed and looped iron 
axe. A letter was read from Dr. Robert Munro, the author of " The 
Lake Dwellings of Europe," drawing special attention to the importance 
of this axe and the similar one from Loughmourne crannog, as showing 
how the first iron axes w-ere evolved from the socketed and looped Bronze 
Age type. The lecturer also exhibited for comparison the Loughmourne 
axe, these being the only two of their kind known in Ireland. In the 
discussion which ensued Mr. May, Mr. Dickson, Dr. Charlesworth, and 
Mr. Cleland took part, the meeting terminating with the election of four 
new members. 

December 18. — Professor Gregg Wilson, of Queen's Universitv, 
gave a lecture on " Crabs," illustrated by fine lantern slides. The 
Vice-President (Mr. Cleland) occupied the chair. The lecturer said some 
of our commonest crabs illustrated excellently adaptation to environment. 
For example, one of our swimming crabs harmonises in colour with the 
sandy bottom in which it is found ; .spider crabs on rocky bottoms secure 
inconspicuousness by decorating themselves with fragments of sponges, 
zoophytes, &c. ; the masked crab seeks safety by burrowing below the 
sand of the sea bottom, and has its antennae modified to form a long 
breathing tube ; and the pea crabs live in apparent comfort inside the 
fortress provided by the shell of a cockle or a mussel. Among the man}' 
devices for dealing with enemies the habit of self-mutilation by discarding 
a leg was perhaps the most striking. Many species of crab had a breaking- 
point near the base of the legs, and could cast off a mutilated member 
or one that had been seized by an enemy. There was an effective 
arrangement which secured the stopping of bleeding at the point of fracture, 
and in course of time a new limb was regenerated. At the conclusion 
vf the lecture the Chairman and Dr. Charlesworth made a few remarks. 



1 91 8. Irish Societies. 31 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

October 27. — Excursion to Kingstown.^ — A party of twenty met 
at Kingstown at three o'clock and proceeded to the shore at Sandy cove, 
where favoured by a low spring tide, the President gave a short demon- 
stration on some of the Mollusca and Crustacea abundantly represented 
on the rocks. The members then went to Queen's Park, Monkstown, 
where Mrs. Bennett hospitably entertained them at tea and showed a large 
and beautifully preserved series of skulls, horns, and skins of African 
mammals. Robert Stokes was elected into the Club at a short business 
meeting. 



NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Sedum Drucei. 

Under this name, given by Dr. Graebner to the plant which in the 
British Isles has been called S. acre, a description by the botanist named 
was published by Mr. Druce, Bot. Exchange Club Report for 1912. In 
Journal of Botany. August, 191 7, Mr. Praeger writes that having 
cultivated in one border S. Drucei as collected in the West of Ireland 
in company with Dr. Graebner, and as collected or received from various 
places in Ireland, England, and Scotland, and a series of wild and 
cultivated plants of S. acre from many European countries, differences 
of even varietal rank do not exist between them. In subsequent numbers 
of the Journal of Botany Mr. H. S. Thompson and Dr. C. H. Ostenfeld 
of Copenhagen write confirming this view, and agreeing in regretting 
the bestowing of specific names upon trivial variations from type. 



Notes on Birds in King^'s County. 

In reference to my note on the appearance of a Green Sandpiper 
{Totanits ochropus) seen by me in King's Co. {Irish Nat., January, p. 14 
supra) I have been informed by Mr. E. Rait Kerr that about eight years 
ago one of these birds was shot in a field here in August or September ; 
sex unknown, plumage adult. It was taken to the late Captain 
Longworth-Dames of Greenhill, Edcndcrr^-, and was identified by him. 
These two records are of some interest, as Mr. Ussher gives none for this 
bird in King's Co. 

It may also be of interest to record that yesterday, January loth, I 
heard the following birds singing here, weather very mild after hard 
frost : — Blackbird, Song Thrush, Chaffinch, Great Tit, and Coal Tit. This 
is the earliest record I have of the Chaffinch's song. 

Rathmoyle, Edenderry. Hei-EN M, Rait Kerr, 



32 The Irish Naturalist. February, 191 8. 



Migration on Lougfh Mask. 

While fishing on Lough Mask at the southern end, between the dates 
August 19th to 23rd, 191 7, I noticed several species of birds which were, 
I think, almost certainly migrating. The first species was the Sand- 
Martin. On August 20th I observed hundreds tlying south, the 
movement being particularly noticeable in the morning, falling off in 
the afternoon, and had practically ceased by about 5 p.m. On some 
bare rocks at the very south of the lake they were collecting in hundreds 
while many passed on over the mountains. On the same day I saw a 
Ringed Plover flying fairly high, and at great speed towards the south 
and on beyond the lake. On the 21st the movement of the Sand-Martins 
was still in progress, especially about 11 a.m. and again from 2 p.m. until 
3.30 p.m. Many passed our boat during the latter period. The 
movement was not so great nor so decided as on the previous day. The 
third species noticed was the Turnstone. Five were noted at about 
3 p.m. on August 20th, and on the following day from 2 p.m. until 2.30 
p.m., during a heavy shower with a high wind, two rested on some rocks 
quite close to our boat. At about the same time my brother, who was 
in another boat, at some distance, noticed three Turnstones on rocks 
much further south. During the above mentioned shower I noticed a 
swift flying south and very low. Evidently the Turnstones and other 
species were availing themselves of the lakes which form a chain from 
Killala Bay to Galway Bay. 

Robert F. Ruttledge. 

Bloomfield, Hollymount, Co. Mayo. 



REVIEW. 

DECORATIVE GARDENING. 

Plant Materials of Decorative Gardening, i. The Woody Plants. 

By William Trelease, Professor of Botany in the Univer.sity of Illinois. 

Pp. 204. Sm. 8v^o. Urbana, 19 17. 1 

This little book, which will easily fit the pocket, gives in a very 
practical and condensed form an account of the shrubs and trees from 
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in the eastern United States. As may be surmised, the contents of 
the volume apply almost equally to our own country. Simple language 
and simple keys are provided ; and it should be easy for anyone with 
a smattering of systematic botany to run down a plant. The number 
of species dealt with is 782, and a large number of varieties are also 
included. For those who love shrubs, and cannot aftord Mr. Bean's 
invaluable but expensive work, this booklet should have a very definite 
value. 

R- U. P- 



Irish Na tikalis r, \'oi.. X W 1 1 



Platk 1. 




L.No.7, SK/JN-DON MT. 
lig.pit. Ligpif^ 



C.tf 




\ 



qO^TYMADDEN. 





ScA.'r: 



CO -TYPE . L. NAqAK»< IVA . 

EHIBLKNICUM. 



AW.S. 
DF_L. 



I'lSiniUM HIBERNICUM, &C. 



To face p. 33. 



March. 1918. The Irish Naktralist. 33 

RECENT EXTENSIONS OF THE RANGE OF 
PISIDIUM HIBERNICUM. 

BY R. A. PHILLIPS, M.R.I. A., AND A. W. STELFOX, M.R.I. A. 

(plates I., II.). 

Twenty-four years have now passed since Dr. Scharff 
collected the original specimens of this fresh-water bivalve 
mollusk in Lough Nagarriva, South Kerry ,1 and forwarded 
them to the great Swedish conchologist, the late C. A. 
Westerlund, who described them as new to science under 
the name of Pisidium hihernicum.^ 

The shell was again taken in L. Nagarriva in 19073 
and discovered in two neighbouring tarns in West Cork — 
Lough Namaddra and a small unnamed tarn on Barraboy 
Mountain. In more recent years Loughs Nagarriva and 
Namaddra have been visited and specimens obtained by 
Fleet-Surgeon K. H. Jones, R.N., Mr. H. C. Huggins, and 
one of the writers (R. A. P.). While collecting in the Dingle 
promontory in 1910 a shell w^as taken abundantly in many 
tarns by A. W. Stelfox and Robt. J. Welch which was 
thought at the time to be P. hihernicmn , and notes of its 
occurrence in that district were inserted in the " Irish List "■* 
then in the press. At the last moment, however, these 
were deleted in deference to Mr. B. B. Woodward's opinion 
that all the shells referred to were forms of P. ohtusale, with 
the exception of the statement on p. 126 that P. hihernicitm 
was " known to inhabit several lakes in South Kerry," which 
was overlooked. At the time of publication this appeared 
to be a mistake, L. Nagarriva being the only recorded station 
for the species in South Kerry. Subsequent stud}- of the 



^ R. F. Scharff, Irish Nat., vol. iv., p. 335, 1895. [Here the lake 
is wrongly stated to be in Co. Cork]. 

^ Nachricht. Deutsch. Malakozool. Gesellschaft, 26*^ Jahrg., p. 205, 
•1894. 

^ J. N. Milne and A. W. Stelfox, Irish Nat., vol. xvi., p. 288. Plate 35 in 
this volume shows the original habitat of the species. 

^Proceedings R. I. Acad., vol. xxix., Sect. B., No. 3. 

A 



34 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

Dingle shells has shown us that the original opinion was 
correct and that they are referable to forms of P. hibernicum 
and not to P. ohtusale. 

P. hihernicmn was next recognised — by Mr. B. B. 
Woodward — among shells collected during the Clare 
Island Survey in L. Gowlanagower, on Inishbofin, West 
Galwa}^ By 1913, when his Catalogue^ w-as published, 
Mr. Woodw^ard had also found it amongst shells from 
Tullaghnafrankagh L., South Galway, and was able to 
record it from the Takern See in Ostergotland, Sweden. 
In 1914 we began to study critically the numerous " locality 
sets " of Pisidia, w^hich we had accumulated during some 
years of assiduous collecting throughout Ireland. This 
material, representing our own gatherings from upwards of 
five hundred localities, had been laid aside to await a 
favourable opportunity for study and in the expectation 
that with Mr. Woodward's monograph before us, the 
identification of our specimens would prove a more easy 
task. 

Our first additional specimens were discovered while 
working out the fossil mollusca which occur in the shell- 
marls of the White Bog, near Killough, Co. Down, Mr. 
Woodward subsequently agreeing with our identification 
of the shells from these deposits. Soon afterwards we 
detected it in gatherings from many localities and came to 
regard it as a widely distributed shell in Ireland, a con- 
clusion which, we think, is fully justified on perusal of the 
list of Irish records given below. 

The first specimen to come to light from England w^as one 
collected in 1908 by A. W. S. in a ditch by the Thames at 
Kew Gardens, Surrey, but as it was considered improbable 
that P. hiherniciim should occur there, it w^as relegated for a 
time to the position of " ? P. nitidiim." Other specimens, 
however, soon put in an appearance, as amongst a large series 
of shells received from Mr. J. E. Cooper, two sets were found 
to contain P. hibernicum — one from Gaerwen, Anglesey, and 



1 Cat. of Brit. Species of Pisidia, cS-c [Afterwards referred to herein 
as " Cat."]. 



igis. Phillips & Stelfox. — Range of Pisidium hibernictim. 35 

the second from Iver, Bucks. It was next recognized from 
some of the various tarns in the Snowdonian range, in 
North Wales, amongst shells collected by Mr. Charles 
Oldham ; and it was found to be well represented in Mr. 
H. Overton's gatherings from the Sutton Coldfield district 
in Warwickshire. Numerous other English and Welsh 
records have since come to hand, as well as one from the 
Isle of Man and one from Norway. 

Owing to the fact that the original habitat was a moun- 
tain tarn, P. hibernicitni has become associated in most 
conchologists' minds with an alpine fauna ; but as a matter 
of fact it has occurred to us in almost all conceivable habitats 
as the following lists show. It is worthy of notice, however, 
that it has not been observed to inhabit the type of habitat 
— often dry for long periods — so associated in one's mind 
with P. personatiim, and that in rivers of large size it w^ould 
appear to be rare. It occurs at all altitudes from sea-level 
to the highest tarns in Ireland and Wales ; in the " peatiest " 
of lakes and in those whose waters are most saturated with 
lime ; but it would appear to reach its finest condition under 
the latter environment, the shell from Crow's Lough, Gorty- 
madden. South Galway, being the most perfect development 
of the species we have yet seen (Plate I., figs. 7 and 8). Some 
of Dr. Scharff' s original examples are the largest that have 
been taken anywhere, and no subsequent visitor to L. 
Nagarriva has obtained, from there, specimens of equal 
size. As pointed out by Mr. Woodward (Cat., p. 118), the 
specimens from, the type locality " represent an abnormally 
swollen form " and, we would add, are rather depauperate, 
except in size, owing no doubt to the very peaty nature of 
their habitat. The more normal and usual lowland form is 
more elliptical, with smaller and more prominent umbones 
and is less tumid. Most of the English and Welsh examples 
are of the last form. Mr. Woodward {loc. cit.) says " Wester- 
lund's measurements are: — Long. 3.5, Alt. 3.5, Crass. 
3.5 mm., but a larger specimen in the National Museum, 
Ireland, is Long. 4.5, Alt. 4 mm. The West Galway [L. 
Gowlanagower] specimens were smaller and less globose : 
2.8x2.5x1.8 mm. ' ' The maj ority of our specimens come 
nearer the latter measurements, 

A 2 



36 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

The systematic position of the present species is, hke 
that of most of our Pisidia, not easy to determine. In 
striation its shell comes between P. ohtiisale and P. nitidum ;i 
the siphonal tube of the animal resembles that of P. 
ohtiisale, but not that of P. nitidum ; the general hinge 
characters of the shell are more nearly allied to P. nitidum, 
though in the case of depauperate shells they may simulate 
those of some forms of P. ohtiisale. The fry of both P. nitidum 
and P. ohtiisale are as a rule distinctly ovate and have a 
longer and straighter hinge-line than those of P. hiherniciim, 
which in outline are markedly quadrate. If we select any 
one of these characters its aihnities can readily be fixed, 
but when all are considered in conjunction the problem 
becomes difficult. P. hibernicum is generally most difficult 
to separate from small tumid forms of P. nitidum, though 
when the two species are taken in association they will not 
often be confounded, as their general appearance, even if 
the siphons cannot be examined, should prove sufficient to 
separate them. It may also at times resemble forms of 
P. ohtiisale or P. milium, and has even been mistaken for 
P. personatum and P. lilljehorgi. In this connection it is 
interesting to state that the specimens of Jenyns' P. 
ohtusale, var. (^, preserved at Bath are, in Mr. Oldham's 
opinion referable to P. hihernicum. Jenyns' diagnosis of 
this variety well fits normal forms of P. hihernicum, and his 
reference to its ochraceous colour is decidedly appropriate 
since the animals of most living examples which we have 
examined were either deep yellow, pinkish-yellow or rose- 
pink. This coloration can as a rule be seen distinctly, even 
when the shells are exteriorly encrusted. The following 
table of characters may be useful to other students of the 
group, when taken in conjunction with the figures on the 
accompanying plates. 

p. hibernicum Westerlund : — Shell — equilateral. Umbones — small, 
prominent. Fry — squarrose. Striation — regular, close and well 
marked. Siphon — narrow, margin simple (Pi. I., fig. 2a.). Liga- 



1 P. nitidum of Jenyns, which probably ecpials the P. pusiUum of 
Mr. B. B. Woodward's Cat., as pointed out by A. W. S. in jouryi. of Conch., 
vol. XV.. pp. 235-239, 1918, 



Irish Naturalist, \"oi.. XX\ II. 



Plate II. 




r MLDIAWM 5nKKi . OKCHAKD LAKE!, MICM., U.S.A. 




,/ 



L.MtENASKElAGlH. LK^A. 

9. ■ II III ill . 11.. "^ 



HOWIES DAM. 




L.D^JN. 

SCALt. < 



BAQULEIY MOOK.. LLYN DWYTHWCH. 



KHIBCI^NICL/M. 



J MM. 



aw.5.dc:l. 



PlSIDlLM MKDIANLM A.ND I'l.SlUlLM 11 lliKK.N ICUM . 



To /rfr<' />. M7. 



i9i8. Phillips & Stelfox. — Range of Pisidiimi hihemicum. 37 

MENT Pit — short, broad and distinct. C. 3^1ong, straight or but 
sHghtly curved. C 3 (the posterior portion of) — usually slightly 
thickened. C. 2 — very long and straight. P. III. — parallel to p. I. 
(PI. I., tig. 2b). 

P. nitidum Jenyns : — Shell — slightly inequilateral. Umbones — broad, 
not very prominent. Fry — oval. Striation — regular, wide- 
Siphon — funnel-shaped, with crenate margin (PI. I., fig. la.) 
Ligament Pit — short, but not so broad nor so distinct 
as in P. hiberniciim. C 3— short, usually distinctly curved or 
crescent-shaped. C. 3 (the posterior portion of) — sometimes 
thickened and even faintly bifurcate. C. 2 — short and straight 
(usually only J or | the length of that of the associated P. hibernicuni) . 
P. III.— parallel to p. I. (PL I., fig. ib). 

P. milium Held : — Shell — slightly or considerably inequilateral. Um- 
bones — broad. Fry — oval. Striation — irregular, very strong. 
Siphon — very narrow and very long. Ligament Pit— long, narrow 
and indistinct. C. 3 — long and fairly straight. C. 3 (the posterior 
portion of) — slightlv thickened. C 2— long. P. III. — parallel to 

P. obtusale (Lam.) Jenyns : — Shell — almost always inequilateral. 
Umbones — broad. Fry — usually oval. Striation — irregular, very 
close, but distinct. Siphon — narrow, margin simple (Plate I., fig. 
3a). Ligament Pit — short, but rather indistinct. C. 3 — short and 
curved. C 3 (the posterior portion of) — thickened and " hooked." 
C. 2 — very short (upper portion sometimes bent outwards ; see B. B. 
Woodward, Cat., p. 121). P. III. — coalescing with p. I. (or only 
tending to in peaty- water forms), and forming a " pseudo-callus " 
(PL I., fig. 3b). 

P. personatum Malm. : — Shell — equilateral. Umbones — broad. Fry — 
very oval. Striation — almost imperceptible. Siphon — broad 

and short (PL I., fig. 4a). Ligament Pit — long and broad 
as in P. casertanimi. C. 3 — short and curved. C. 3 (the posterior 
portion of) — thickened and " hooked." C 2 — long and usually 
curved. P. III. — parallel to p. I. (but above p. III. is a separate 
callosity : the callus of B. B. Woodward, see Cat., p. 55) (PI. I., 
fig. 4b). 

From P. lilljehorgi of equal size P. hihemicum may be at 
once distinguished by its short and broad Hgament-pit, the 
pit of P. lilljehorgi being longer and narrower than that of 
any other species we have examined. Young shells oi the 
two species in which the ligament pit is not easily dis- 
cernible may, in cases, be extremely difficult to separate. 
Neither the globular form nor the twisted lateral teeth of 
the hinge referred to by Mr, Woodward as the chief diag- 

A 3 



38 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

nostic characters of P. hihernicum (Cat., p. ii8) can be 
relied on, in our opinion, to separate it from certain forms 
of P. iiitidum, P. ohtusalc or P. milium. 

In the report of the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of 
the Clare Island Survey, ^ A. W. S. suggested that the present 
species might be an " American " one : that is to say, 
that it might belong to the same faunistic group as the 
s]:)onge Heteromeyenia ryderi — with which it is frequently 
associated in the West of Ireland — and that its distribution 
might correspond with that of the plants Eriocaulon septan- 
gularc, Naias flexilis and Spiranthes Romanzoffiana, which 
outside North America live only in a few stations in N.W. 
Europe. The occurrence of P. hihernicum in Wales, England, 
Norway and Sweden suggests, however, that it is probably 
a wddely distributed Palaearctic form. Recently we have 
acquired a collection of Pisidia received by Mr. J. R. le 
B. Tomhn from Mr. Bryant Walker of U.S.A. — all of which 
are said to have been identified by Dr. Sterki. Amongst 
these are shells labelled " P. mediamim Sterki " (Plate II., 
figs. I and 2), and others " P. mediamim, var. minnta 
Sterki," which bear a remarkable resemblance to forms of 
P. hihernicum. To sav that thev are P. hihernicum would 
be impossible in such a group as the Pisidia, but had these 
shells been found in Ireland, we think that they would have 
been referred without doubt to that species. 

The only fossil examples of P. hihernicum which we have 
seen come from Irish shell-marls and are of post-Glacial 
age ; but it will not surprise us if the species proves to have 
been overlooked in some of the pre-Glacial deposits in 
England or on the continent. 

We have to thank numerous workers for assistance in 
accumulating the information given in the following lists : 
Messrs. P. T. Deakin, N. C;. Hadden, H. C. Huggins, J. W. 
Jackson, J. N. Milne, J. E. Cooper (for allowing us to 
examine his large series of shells named " P. nitidum " by 
Mr. B. B. Woodward, in which were detected two sets of 



* Proceedings I\. J. Acad., vol. jcxxi-, part 23. 



tgi8. Phillips & Stelfox. — Range of Pisidium hibernicum. 39 

P. hibernicum), H. Overton' (who sent us no less than ninety 
carefully localized gatherings of Pisidia, mainly from his 
own district), C. Oldham (for permitting us to examine his 
collection of Pisidia from the Welsh tarns), Hans Schlesch of 
Hellerup, Denmark (for permission to study his collection 
from Iceland and Scandinavia), and Robt. J. Welch for 
placing the whole of his collection at our disposal. The 
specimens in the National iMuseum in Dublin have also been 
available to us through Dr. R. F. Scharff' s kindness. 

IRISH RECORDS FOR P. HIBERNICUM. 
Contractions used: — H.C.H. = H. C. Huggins ; K.H.J. = K. H. Jones; 
J.N.M. =: J. X. Milne ; H.O. = H. Overton ; CO. = C. Oldham ; 
J.W.J. = J. W. Jackson; R.F.S. = R. F. Scharff; NrH.F. =N. H. 
Foster; R.J.W. = R. J. Welch; H.T. = late Major Trevely an ; 
D.M. =in Dublin Museum; R.A.P. & A.W.S. = the writers. 

X^OTE. — The Remarks refer to P. hibernicum alone and not to the asso- 
ciated species of Pisidia. 

South Kerry. 

Loc. — -Lough Nagarriva, a large tarn with bed of rocks and peaty mud. 
Coll.— R.F.S., J.X.M., A.W.S., R.A.P., K.H.J, and H.C.H., 1893- 
1913. Alt. — 1, 200 feet. Assoc. — P. lilljeborgi, P. milium and P. 
obtusale. [Species other than Pisidia are not referred to since they can 
scarcely be said to be " associates "]. PI. I., figs. 9, 10. 

Loc. — Lough Tooreenmartin, Dingle Promontory, a large, shallow tarn, 
with clear water and stony bed. Coll. — A.W.S., Sept., 1910. Alt. — 
1,200 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. lilljeborgi, collected at the roots 
of Isoetes. Remarks — Recorded by A.W.S. as P. obtusale in I. Nat., 
vol. xxiv., p. ^^. 

Loc. — Tarns in Coumaknock, on Brandon Mt., Dingle Promontory. 
These tarns are mostly lying in rock-basins and have clean, very cold 
water and little mud or silt. Coll. — A.W.S. and R.J.W., Sept., 
1910. Alt. — 650 to 2,300 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidum, 
P. milium, and P. obtusale- Remarks — Recorded by A.W.S. as P. 
obtusale in /. Nat., vol. xxiv., pp. 21 and 33. PI. I., figs. 5, 6. 

Loc. — Clogharee Lough, in valley north of Connor Pass, Dingle Promon- 
tory, a small shallow lake with stony bed. Coll. — A.W.S., Sept., 
1914. Alt. — 100 ft. Assoc. — No other Pisidia seen. 

X'^ORTH Kerry. 
Loc. — Lough Crincaum, Cromaglaun Mt., near Killarney. Coll. — E. 
Collier, July, 1898. Assoc. — Xo other Pisidia seen. Remarks — 
Recorded by R. Standen as P. nitidum in /. Nat., \o\. vii., p. 226. 

1 We learn from Mr. Overton that, some years ago, he suspected that 
some of his shells might be referable to P. hibernicum, but he was unable 
to obtain confirmation of this. [Note added in press]. 



40 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

West Cork. 

Loc. — Lough Namaddni, north of Glengarriff. Coll. — J.N.M. and 
A.W.S., July, 1907. (Also H.C.H., 1914). Alt. — 1,200 ft. Remarks — 
No other Pisidia seen. 

Loc. — Pool below L. Namaddra. Coll. — H.C.H., 1916. Alt. — 1,000 ft. 

Loc. — Lough Avaul. Coll. — H.C.H., 1914 ; R.A.P., Aug., 1908. 
Remarks — In peaty mud. 

Loc. — Unnamed tarn on Barraboy Mt., north of Glengarriff. Coll. — 
J.N.M. and A. W.S., July, 1907. Alt. — 1,350 ft. Assoc. — P.lilljeborgi 
and P. obtitsale. 

Loc. — Lough More. Coll. — H.C.H., 1914. Alt. — About Ooo ft. Re- 
marks — In peaty mud. 

Loc. — Pool at Derryconnery. Coll. — H.C.H., 1916. Alt. — 100 ft. 
Remarks— In peaty mud. 

Loc. — Pool above Barley Lake. Coll. — H.C.H., 1916. Alt. — About 
1,100 ft. Remarks — In peaty mud. 

Waterford. 

Loc. — In the great marsh south of Waterford Town. Coll. — A.W.S., 
April, 191 2. Alt. — About 1^ ft. Assoc. — P. ijiiliuiii, P. subtrun- 
catiim and P. obtusale. Remarks — Mr. B. B. Woodward has identi- 
fied these as P. obtusale. 

Loc. — River Suir at Carrickbeg. Coll. — R.A.P., Aug., 191 7. 

South Tipperary. 
Loc. — River Suir at Carrick-on-Suir. Coll. — R.A.P., Aug., 1917- 

Limerick. 
Loc. — River Shannon, near Limerick. Coll. — R.A.P., March, 1916. 

North Tipperary. 
Loc. — Peat-holes in Carrigahorig Bog. Coll. — R.A.P., April, 1917. 

Clare. 
Loc. — Inchiquin Lake (in drift). Coll. — R.A.P., 1916. 

Wexford. 

Loc. — Marshes along coast near Curraghcloe. Coll. — A.W.S., April, 

191 2. Alt. — About 25 ft. Assoc. — P. niiidiim, P. milium and P. 

obtusale. 
LqC — River Slaney, near Enniscorthy. Coll. — R.A.P., 191 7. Alt. — 

About 30-40 ft. Assoc. — P. amnicuni, P. nitidum, P. pulchelluni, 

and P. subtvuncatum. 

Carlow. 
Loc. — River Barrow, at Tinnahinch (in drift). Coll. — A.W.S., April, 191 2. 



i9i8. Phillips & Stelfox. —Range of Pisidiiim hibernicimt. 41 

South Galway. 
Log. — Lough Derg, near Portumna. Coll. — R.A.P., July, 1917. 
Loc— Lough Rea. Coll.— R. A. P., July, 191 7. PI. IL, figs. 5, 6. 
Log. — Crows Lough, Gortymadden. Coll. — R.A.P., July, 1917. PI. L, 

figs. 7, 8. 
Log. — Lough Atorick. Coll. — R.A.P., May, 191 2. 

Log. — Peat-holes in bog near Balhnasloe. Coll. — R.A.P., July, 191 2. 
Log. — Stream at Kilmacduagh. Coll. — R.A.P., May, igii. 

West Galway. 

Loc. — Lough Gowlanagower, Inishbofin. Coll. — A.W.S., June, 191 1. 

Alt. — About 40 ft. Assog. — P. nitidum and P. milium. Remarks 

— Identified by Mr. B. B. Woodward and recorded in Cat., p. 119. 
Log. — Lough Fawna, Inishbofin. Coll. — A.W.S., June, 1911. Alt. — • 

About 100 ft. Assog. — No other Pisidia seen. Remarks — P. 

obtusale, fide Mr. B. B. Woodward. Recorded as such by A.W.S. in 

Proc. R. I. Acad., vol. xxxi., part 23, p. 37. 
Log. — Lough Nagrooaun, Inishbofin. Coll. — A.W.S., June, 191 1. Alt. — 

About 40 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. obtusale. Remarks — P. 

obtusale, fide Mr. B. B. Woodward. 
Log. — Cregmore Lough, near Roundstone. Coll. — R.A.P., Oct., 1909. 
Loc. — River Corrib, near Galway. Coll. — R.A.P., Nov., 191 7. 

North Galway. 

Log.— Lough Callow. Coll. — R.W., 1900. 
Log. — Ballindooly. Coll. — R.A.P., Aug., 1908. 

WiGKLOW. 

Loc. — Marshes along the coast south of Arklow. Coll. — A.W.S., April, 
1912. Alt. — About 10-15 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. milium, 
and P. obtusale. 

Westmeath. 

Loc. — Lough Drin, near Mullingar. Coll. — A.W.S!, ]\Iarch, 1910. Assoc. 
— P. milium and P. nitidum. Remarks — This set was divided by 
Mr. B. B. Woodward into " P. milium " and " P. lilljeborgi." See Cat. 
p. 115. Pl. II., figs. 9, 10. 

West Mayo. 

Loc— Sraheens Lough, Achill Island. Coll. — A.W.S., April, 1909. 

Alt. — About 60 ft. Assoc. — P. lilljeborgi. Remarks — P. obtusale, fide 

Mr. B. B. Woodward. See Cat., p. 125 ; also A.W.S., Proc R. I. Acad., 

vol. xxxi., part 1^, p. 29. 
Loc. — Lough Gall, Achill Island (in drift). Coll. — A.W.S., June, 191 1. 

Alt. — About 20-30 ft. Remarks — P. pusillum^ fide Mr. B. B. 



42 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

Woodward, and recorded as such by A.W.S. in Proc R. I. Acad., 

vol. xxxi., part i^, p. 29. 
Loc. — Lough Nakeeroge (East), Achill Island. Coll. — A.W.S., June, 

191 1. Alt. — 15 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum. 
Loc. — Creevaghaun Lough, near Newport. Coll. — A.W.S., June, 191 1. 

Alt. — About 30-50 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. miliuin. Remarks 

— P. obtusale, fide Mr. B. B. Woodward. See Cat., p. 125. 

Sligo. 

Loc. — Lake in sand-dunes at Rosses Point, a shallow lake with sandy bed 
Coll. — A.W.S., July, 1904. Alt. — About 10-20 ft. Assoc. — P. 
uitidmii. Remarks — Recorded in /. Nat., Sept., 1904, as P. obtusale 
by A.W.S. 

Louth. 
Loc. — Lake near Dundalk. Coll. — R.A.P., Sept., 1917. 

MONAGHAN. 

Loc. — Ulster Canal south of Monaghan Town. Coll.^A.W.S., 1909. 
Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium and P. subtvuncatum. 

East Donegal. 

Loc. — Lougli Acapple. Coll.^D.M. (H.T.). Remarks — Identified by Mr. 
B. B. W^oodward as P. steenbuchii Moller. See Irish Nat., vol. xx., 
p. 46, 191 1. [I understand that this record has been withdrawn by 
Mr. Woodward and for it P. lilljeborgii has been substituted. — A.W.S.]. 

Loc. — ^Lough Meenaskeagh. Coll. — D.M. (H.T.). Remarks. — Identified 
and recorded b}- Mr. B. B. Woodward as P. personatum Malm. 
See Irish Nat., vol. xxi., p. 96, 191 2. PI. II., figs. 3, 4. 

West Donegal. 

Loc. — Mullaghderg Lough, north of Burton Port. Coll. — A.W.S., Sept., 

1903. Alt.— About 15-20 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium, P. 

subtvuncatum, and P. lilljeborgi. Remarks — Recorded in /. Nat., 

vol. XV., p. 66, as P. obtusale, by A.W.S. 
Loc. — Dunmore Lough, Carrickfin Peninsula, Bunbeg. Coll. — A.W.S. 

Sept., 1905. Alt. — About 30-40 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium, 

and P. subtruncatum. 
Loc. — Carnboy Lough, Carrickfin Peninsula, Bunbeg, a large lake wiih 

sandy bottom. Coll. — A.W.S., Sept., 1908. Alt. — About 10-20 ft. 

Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium, P. subtvuncatum and P. obtusale. 

Tyrone. 

Loc. — Washing Bay, Lough Neagh (in drift). Coll, — A.W.S., Feb., r^o6. 
Alt.— 4O ft. 



i9iS. Phillips & Stelfox. — Range of Pisidiiim hiberniciim. 43 



Armagh. 

Log. — Newry Canal near Poyntzpass. Coll. — A.W.S. Alt. — About 60 
ft. Assoc. — P. milium and P. subtruncatuni. 

Down. 

Loc. — -j\lill-race at Ballyholme and stream two miles inland. Coll.— 
A.W.S., April,i9i6. Alt. — About 30 and 50 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidiim, 
P. milium and P. subtruncatum. Remarks — Animals bright rose 
colour. 
Loc. — ]Mill dam in Strickland's Glen, near Bangor. Coll. — A. W. S., 
Sept., 191 7. Alt. — About 30 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. sub- 
truncatum. Remarks — Animals bright rose colour. 
Loc. — Pond in Belvoir Park, near Belfast. Coll. — A.W.S., April, 191 1. 

Alt. — About 50 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. milium. 
Loc. — Small lake near Monlough, a small peaty lake, filled with dense 
vegetation. Coll. — A.W.S., April, 1912. Alt. — About 400 ft. 
Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. casertanum. 
Loc. — Portavoe Demesne, near Donaghadee. Coll. — H.O., Sept., 1912. 
Alt. — About 40 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium, and P. sub- 
truncatum. 
Loc. — Old flax hole near Dromara. Coll. — A.W.S. and N.H.F., Aug., 
191 7. Alt. — About 450 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum and P. milium. 
Remarks — Animals bright rose-pink. 
Loc. — Carrickmannon Lough, near Saintfiekl. Coll. — J.X.^I. Assoc. — 

P. nitidum. 
Loc. — In entrance stream to lake, Hillsborough Demesne. Coll. — N.H.F. 
June, 191 7. Alt. — About 300 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. tnilium, 
and P. subtruncatum. 
Loc. — Lady Alice's Pond, Hillsborough Demesne. Coll. — N.H.F., June, 
191 7. Alt. — About 300 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. subtrun- 
catum. Remarks — Animals bright salmon-rose colour. 
Loc. — Dick's Hole, Hillsborough Demesne. Coll. — N.H.F., June, 1917. 
Alt. — About 300 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium 
and P. subtruncatum. Remarks — Animals bright salmon-rose 
colour. 
Loc. — Moynes Lough, east of Hillsborough, a small lake, almost filled 
up with vegetation. Coll. — X.H.F., July, 191 7. Alt. — About 
350 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium, and P. subtruncatum. 
Loc. — McKee's Dam, near Hillsborough. Coll. — N.H.F. , July, 1917. 
Alt. — About 300 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. subtruncatum. 

Antrim. 

Loc. — Howie's Dam, Belfast. Coll. — The late H. C. Hyndman, 1856. 
Alt. — About 200 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium 
and P. subtruncatum. Remarks — In the Hyndman Collection, 
Belfast Mun. Museum, labelled " From a Scaup Duck's stomach shot 



44 Ihc Irish Naturalist. March, 

on Howie's Dam — a bird not often seen on fresh water." (PI. II., 

figs. 7.8)- 

Loc. — Mouth of Antrim River, Lough Neagh, in about lo ft. of water, 
just where river opens into lake. Coll. — A.W.S. and R.J.W., August, 
1907. Alt. — 46 ft. Assoc. — P. caseYtanum, P. nitidum, P. milium 
and P. snbtruncatnm. Remarks — An abundance of Sphaerium 
lacitstre and S. come urn also occurs in this habitat. 

Loc— Lough Duff, Sallagh Braes, near Larne, a very shallow tarn on the 
basaltic plateau. Coll. — A.W.S. Alt. — 1,050 ft. Assoc. — P. 
nitidum and P. subtruncatum. 

Loc. — In old watercourse by the second lock of the Lagan Canal above 
Belfast. This habitat is quite dry in summer time as a rule. Coll. — 
A.W.S., 1916. Alt. — About 30 ft. Assoc. — No other Pisidia seen. 
Remarks — The shells were very small and stunted. 

Loc. — Ditch by the River Lagan, Malone, above Belfast. Coll. — H.O., 
May, 1 91 3. Alt. — About 50 ft. 

Loc. — One of the lakes on Fair Head (clear peaty water, with stony 
bottoms). Coll. — H.O., May, 1913. Alt. — About 500-600 ft. 
Assoc. — P. nitidum. 

Loc. — Woodburn Reservoir, Carrickfergus. Coll. — J. Reilly, 1898, per 
R.J.W. 

Loc. — In the River Main near Galgorm, above Ballymena. Coll. — 
A.W.S., April, 191 2. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium and P. sub- 
truncatum. 

Loc— Tarn ^ mile X.W. of Little Trosk and J mile N.E. of L. Fad, N.W. 
of Carnlough, a shallow tarn on basaltic plateau. Coll. — A.W.S., 
April, 1912. Alt. — About 1,000 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum 'a.nd P. lillje- 
borgi. 

Derry. 

Loc. — Mill-dam one mile S.E. of Magherafelt (in drift). Coll. — A.W.S., 
April, 1 9 10. Alt. — About 100 ft. 



WELSH RECORDS FOR P. HIBERNICUM. 

(Communicated by Mr. Charles Oldham, F.L.S.). 

Denbighshire. 

Loc. — Llyn Aled, in the Hiraethog Mts., a large tarn with stony bed. 
Coll. — CO., June, 1917- Alt. — 1,740 ft. Assoc. — No other 
Pisidia seen. Remarks — B.B.W. agrees with identification. 

Carnarvonshire. 

Loc. — Llyn Ogwcn, in the Snowdonian Mts. Coll. — CO., Sept., 191 1. 
Alt. — 984 ft. Assoc. — P. lilljebovgi. Remarks — Recorded as P. 
obtusalehy CO., /. of C, vol. xiii., p. 353 ; and by B. B. W., Cat., 
p. 124. 



i9i8. Phillips & Stelfox. — Range of Pisidium hihernicum. 45 

Loc. — Llynau Mymbyr, iu the Snowdonian Mts. Coll. — CO., Sept.,igii. 

Alt. — -588 ft. Assoc. — P. lilljeborgi. Remarks — Recorded as P. 

pusillum by CO., ibid. pp. 353-4 ; and by B.B.W., Cat., p. 65. 
Loc. — Llyn Dwythwch, in the Snowdonian Mts. Coll. — CO., July, 1916. 

Alt.^ — 920 ft. Assoc. — No other Pisidia seen. Remarks — See /. of 

C, vol. XV., p. 232. PI. II., figs. 13, 14. 
Loc. — Llyn Padarn,^ in the Snowdonian Mts. Coll. — CO., June, 1917. 

Alt. — 340 ft. Assoc— 7P. casertanum and P. suhtruncatum. 
Loc. — Llyn Peris,^ in the Snowdonian Mts. Coll. — CO., June, 1917- 

Alt. — 340 ft. Assoc. — P. lilljeborgi and P. obtusale. 
Loc. — Llyn Anafon (Aber Lake). Coll. — CO., June, 1917. Alt. — 1,630 

ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium and P. lilljeborgi. 
Loc. — Llynau Diwaunedd, Moel Siabod. Coll. — CO., Sept., 191 1. 

Alt. — 1,208 ft. Remarks — Referred by B.B.W. to his P. pusillum. 

See Cat., p. 65. 
Loc. — Llynau Mymbyr, Capel Curig. Coll. — CO., Sept., 191 1. Alt. — 

588 ft. Remarks — Referred by B.B.W. to his P. pusillum. See Cat., 

p. 65. 

Merionethshire. 

Loc. — Fairbourne, near Barmouth, running water in a ditch behind the 

sea-wall. Alt. — Sea-level. Assoc. — P. subtruncatum. Remarks — 

B.B.W. [in Hit.) refers these to his P. nitidum. 
Loc. — Llyn Lliwbran, in the Aran Mts. Coll. — CO., June, 1917. Alt. — 

1,500 ft. Assoc. — No other Pisidia seen. Remarks— B.B.W. {in 

Hit.) refers these to his P. nitidum. 
Loc. — Llyn Cyri, Cader Idris. Coll. — CO., June, 1917. Alt.— 1,200 ft. 

Assoc. — P. nitidum. Remarks — B.B.W. {in Utt.) refers these to his 

P. nitidum. 
Loc. — Llyn Dulyn, near Llanddwye, in the Ardudwy Mts. Coll. — CO., 

June,i9i7. Alt. — 1,740 ft. Assoc. — P. obtusale. Remarks — B.B.W. 

{in litt.) agrees. 
Loc. — Llyn Irddyn, in the Ardudwy Mts. Coll. — CO., June, 1917. 

Alt. — 1,029 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum Sind P. milium. Remarks — 

B.B.W. {in litt.) agrees. 
Loc. — Llyn Y Bi, in the Ardudwy Mts. Coll. — CO., Oct., 1916. 

Alt.— 1,400 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum. Remarks — B.B.W. {in 

litt.) refers these to P. obtusale. 
Loc. — Llyn Cwm Mynach (a peaty tarn), in the Ardudwy Mts. Coll. — 

C.O., June,i9i7. Alt. — 950 ft. Assoc. — P. casertanum. Remarks — 

B.B.W. {in litt.) agrees. 
Loc. — A nameless tarn on Y Garn, near Dolgelly (peaty), in the Ardudwy 

Mts. Coll. — CO., July, 1917. Alt. — 1,800 ft. Assoc. — P. cas- 
ertanum. [End of CO.'s notes]. 

Anglesey. 
Loc. — Gaerwen. Coll. — J. E. Cooper. 

1 The Llanberis Lakes. 



46 The Irish Naturalist. March, 



iMANX RECORD FOR P. HIBERNICUM. 

Isle of Man. 

Loc. — Marshes near the Point of Air. Coll. — F. Balfour Browne, July, 
1910. Alt. — Sea level. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nilidum, P. 
milium and P. subtruncatum. 



ENGLISH RECORDS FOR P. HIBERNICUM. 

Surrey. 

Loc. — Ditch in field near Merton Abbey station, London, S.W. Coll. — 
A.W.S., April, 1907. Alt. — About 30 ft. Assoc. — P. henslowanum 
and spp. 

Loc. — Ditch by the towing path, Kew Gardens. Coll. — A.W.S., May, 
1907. Assoc. — P. milium, P. subtruncatum, and P. henslowanum. 



Hertfordshire. 

Loc. — Fishpond, Aldenham Abbey (this pond is connected with the River 
Colne). Coll. — CO., May, 191 7. Assoc. — P. amnicum, P. nitidum, 
P. subtruncatum and P. henslowanum. Remarks — Mr. B. B. Wood- 
ward agrees with this determination. 

Loc. — Brook at Cassio Bridge, Watford. Coll. — CO., Aug., 1917. 
Remarks — Mr. B. B. Woodward [in litt. to CO.) says, " To my mind 
these are P. nitidum." 

Buckinghamshire. 

Loc. — Iver. Coll. — J. E. Cooper. 

Loc. — Canal at Dcnham Lock. Coll. — J. E. Cooper. 

Cambridgeshire. 

Loc. — " Wicken Fen. Ex. F. Taylor." Remarks — In possession of Mr. 
J. W. Jackson. 

Northamptonshire. 

Loc. — River Nene at Northampton. Coll. — CO., Aug., 1917. Assoc. — 
P. amnicum, P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium, P. subtruncatu)n, 
and P. henslowanum. 

Warwickshire. 

Loc. — Stream near Windmill, Yardlcy Wood. Coll. — H.O., Sept., 191 1. 

Assoc. — P. nitidum and P. subtruncatum. 
Loc. — Longmoor Pool (7a. 3r. i6p.), Sutton Park (\ery muddy and peaty, 

caused by dead leaves, &c.). Coll. — H.O., 1894. Assoc. — P. 



igiS. Phillips <fe Stelfox. — Range of Pisidium hihernicum. 47 

casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium, P. pulcJiellmn, P. suhtrimcaUtm 
and P. henslowanioH. 

Loc. — Bracebridge Pool (i6a. ir. 29p.) (gravelly or muddy bottom, con- 
taining much weed). Coll. — H.O. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium 
P. suhtruncatitm and P. henslowanum. 

Log. — Blackroot Pool (12a. or. ijp.j, Sutton Park (very muddy). Coll. — 
H.O., Sept., 1893. Assoc. — P. amnicum, P. casertanum, P. nitidum, 
P. milium, P. pulcheUum, P. subtruncatum, and P. henslowanum. 
Remarks — "Taken from where the brook runs into the pool." — 
H.O. 

Loc. — Hill Hook, near Sutton Coldfield. Coll.— H.O. [also N. G. Hadden, 
June, 1913.] Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium, P. sub- 
truncatum, P. henslowanum, and P. obtusale. Remarks — " I think 
these came from both the stream and the pit ; the former is gravelly, 
the latter has marly-mud." — H.O. 

Loc. — Windley Nursery (water-cre.ss bed), Sutton Coldfield. Coll. — H.O. 
Assoc. — P. casertanum and P. nitidum. Remarks — " A small over- 
grown pit, dug by the side of the stream, from which it is fed." 
—H.O. 

Loc. — Spademill Pool, Sutton Park (28a. 2r. 34P.). Coll. — H.O., April, 
1895. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. nnlium, P. sub run- 
catum, and P. henslowanum. Remarks — " Fairly muddy, but little 
weed."— H.O. 

Loc— The IMoat, New Hall, near Sutton Coldfield. Coll.— H.O. Assoc. — 
P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium, P. subtruncatum, and P. hens- 
lowanum. Remarks — " Fair quantity of mud and weed."- — H.O. 

Loc. — A shallow grassy ditch in Crystal Palace grounds, Sutton Cold- 
field. Coll. — H.O., 1893. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidum, 
P. milium, P. pulcheUum and P. subtruncatum. 

Loc— Skinner's Pool [ir. i2p.), Sutton Coldfield. Coll.— H.O. Assoc. — 
P. casertanum, P. nitidum, P. milium, P. subtruncatum, P. henslo- 
ivanum and P. obtusale. Remarks- — " Very muddy ; contained very 
large Unio tumidus, now filled up." — H.O. 

Loc. — Olton Reservoir, near Birmingham. Coll. — H.O., June, 1910. 
Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium and P. subtruncatum. 

Loc. — Keeper's Pool (2a. or. 37p.), Sutton Park. Coll. — H.O., 1893. 
[Also P. T. Deakin, May, 1882]. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium, 
P. pulcheUum, P. subtruncatum and P. henslowanum. Remarks — 
" Mud, rushes, and much Menyanthes trifoliata, but I think these 
came from the side of the w'ood where there is mud and decayed 
leaves. "^ — H.O. 

Worcestershire. 

Loc. — Near Sare Hole Mill (Birmingham). Coll. — P. T. Deakin, June, 
1890. Assoc — P. nitidum, P. subtruncatum and P. henslowanum, 



48 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

Staffordshire. 

Loc. — Park lime-pits, Walsall. Assoc. — P. casertanum, P. nitidiim, P. 
milium, J\ subtyuyicatiim and P. hensloivanin}?. I^emarks — " Old 
workings (in Wcnlock Shale), about 2 acres in extent, into which the 
water broke through many years ago. Not much vegetation." — H.O. 

Loc. — Pool in Gt. Barr Park, near Walsall. Coll. — H.O., Nov., 191 1. 
Assoc. — P. nitiditm, P. milium and P. henslowanum. Remarks — 
Mr. B. B. Woodward has referred these to P. ohtusale. See Cat., p. 124. 

Cheshire. 

Loc. — Baguley ]\Ioor. Coll. — CO., Oct., 1894. [Also J. W. Jackson, 
March, 1902J. Remarks — " B.B.W., Cat., p. 55, refers these to P. 
personatum, but in Nov., 191 7, when I submitted them to him again, 
he agreed that they were P. hibernicum." — CO. PI. II., figs. 11, 12. 

Lancashire. 

Loc. — Ditch, Haweswater, Silverdale. Coll. — J. W. Jackson, iNIay, 1904. 

Loc. — Haweswater, Silverdale. Coll.— J. W. Jackson, 1909. Assoc. — 

P. nitidum, P. milium, P. subtruncatum, P. lilljeborgi and P. obtusale. 

[No specimens have been seen from Scotland.] 

EX-BRITANNIC RECORDS FOR P. HIBERNICUM. 

Mr. B. B. Woodward, Cat., p. 119, records this species from the Takern 
See, Ostergotland, Sweden ; while we have seen several specimens 
from Tonset, Norway, in the Schlesch collection of the Hull Municipal 
Museum. 



IRISH FOSSIL RECORDS FOR P. HIBERNICUM. 

Clare. 

Loc. — In shell-marl from bank of River Fergus, near Ennis. Coll. — 
R.A.P., April, 191 7. Alt. — About sea-level. Assoc. — P. caser- 
tanum, P. nitidum, P. milium and P. obtusale. Remarks — These 
shell-marls are post-Glacial, and the uppermost beds possibly date 
from what is known as the " climatic optimum." 

Loc. — In shell-marl from near Corrofin. Coll. — R.A.P., June, 191 7. 
Assoc. — P. nitidum, P, milium, and P. obtusale. 

Down. 

Loc. — In shell-marl, and peat above same, White Bog, Killough. Coll. — 
A.W.S., 1912-1917. Alt. — 30 ft. Assoc. -P. casertanum, P. nitidum, 
P. milium, P. subtruncatum, P. lilljeborgi and P. obtusale. Remarks — 
Occurs in the marl from the oldest to the uppermost layers, as well 
fis in pockets of marl in the overlying peat, 



igiS. Phillips & Stelfox. — Range of Pisidiimi hibernicttm. 49 

Loc. — In shell-marl from site of old lake near Legacurry, Hillsborough. 
Coll. — Per N.H.F., 1910. Alt. — About 200 ft. Assoc. ^ — P. nitidum 
and P. milium. Remarks — P. ohtusale, fide Mr. B. B. Woodward, 
See Cat., p. 126. 

Antrim. 

Loc. — In shell-marl from Magi aberry (near Moira), on site of old lake. 
Alt. — About 70 ft. Assoc. — P. nitidum, P. milium, P. suhtruncatum 
and P. ohtusale. Remarks^ — Recorded by Messrs. Kennard and Wood- 
ward as P. ohtusale. See Proc. Geol. Association, vol. xxviii., p. 146. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 

Figs. 1(7 and ih. — Siphon and posterior lateral teeth of hinge of P. nitidum 

Jenyns { = P. pusillum, B. B. Woodward, Cat., pi. i, fig. 8), from 

Dick's Hole, Hillsborough Demesne, Co. Down. 
Figs. 2fl and 2b. — Do. of P. hihernicum West., taken in association 

with the last. 
Figs. 3fl and 36. — Do. of P. ohtusale (Lam.) Jenyns, from a disused 

mill-race a few yards from the above habitat. 
Figs. 4fl and 46. — Do. of P. personatum (Malm.) B. B. Woodward, 

taken in association with the last. 
[The siphon of P. milium Held is not figured : it is somewhat like 
that of P. ohtusale, but is much longer and very narrow. The posterior 
laterals of P. milium are similar in some ways to those of both P. nitidum 
and P. hihernicum and are not figured in consequence.] 
Figs. 5 and 6. — Interior view of pair of valves of P. hihernicum from 

" Lough No. 7," 2,250 ft. alt., Coumaknock, Brandon Mt., South 

Kerry. A very thin and tumid form ! 
Figs. 7 and 8. — Do. from Crow's Lough, near Gortymadden, South 

Galway. The most perfect specimen we have yet seen ! 
Figs. 9 and 10.- — Do. from Lough Nagarriva, South Kerry : one 

of Dr. Scharff's original specimens. A very tumid and abnormal 

form, but unfortunately the type of the species ! 

Plate II. 

Figs. I and 2. — Interior view of pair of valves of P. medianum Sterki 

from Orchard Lake, Mich., U.S.A., for comparison with figures 

of P. hihernicum from L. Rea. 
Figs. 3 and 4. — Interior view of pair of valves of P. hihernicum West, from 

Lough Meenaskeagh, East Donegal. 
Figs. 5 and 6. — Do. from Lough Rea, South Galway. A thickened 

form : the nearest we have seen to the American P, medianurn 

figured above ! 



50 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

Figs. 7 and 8. — Interior view of pair of valves of P. hibemicum West, 
from the stomach of a Scaup Duck, shot on Howie's Dam, 
Belfast, Co. Antrim, in 1856. 

Figs. 9 and 10. — Do. from Lough Drin, near MuUingar, Co. 

Westmeath. 

Figs. II and 12. — Do. from Baguley Moor, Cheshire. Represen- 
ting a normal English form ! 

Figs. 13 and 14. — Do. from Llyn Dwythwch, 920 ft. alt., near 

Llanberis, Carnarvonshire. A form typical of the Welsh tarns ! 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

January 15. — Rev. K. Dunbar gave a lecture entitled, " The Life 
Hi.story of Some British Lepidoptera," illustrated by a series of lantern 
slides. There were four distinct stages in the life history of lepidoptera — 
ova, larva, pupa, and imago. The ova were for the most part laid on or 
near the food plant, and either singly or in clusters. Lepidopterous larvae 
were almost exclusively vegetarian. During the larval stage the skin was 
cast three or four times, the last moult revealing the pupa. Brief sum- 
maries were then given of the life histories of some local species — among 
butterflies, V. urticcB, E. cardamines ; among moths, 5. convolvuli, C. 
potatoria, A. caja, and 7). vinula. Mr. Foster and Mr. Stendall took part 
in the discussion which followed. 



DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

January 23. — Annual General Meeting. — The President, Prof. G. H. 
Carpenter, M.Sc, in the chair. The Annual Report and Statement of 
Accounts for 1917 were submitted and adopted. A vote of thanks to 
Mr. C. J. Bateman, who had acted as Hon. Treasurer for some years, 
proposed by R. LI. Praeger and seconded by the President, was passed. 
The names of the officers and committee for 191 8 were announced as 
follows : — President — J. de W. Hinch ; Vice-President — Prof. A. 
Henry, m.a., f.l.s. ; Hon. Treasurer — G. C. May, b.l. ; Hon. Secretary 
— Mrs. T. Long ; Committee — Prof. Carpenter, Prof. Cole, X. Colgan, 
D. W. Freeman, Miss J. Gilmour, Mrs. Harford, Rev. J. Hamilton, Miss 
Kate Murphy, K. LI. Praeger, Miss J. Stephens, Alexander Williams. 

The incoming President J. de W. Hinch, delivered an inaugural address, 
dealing with " The development and decay of the Irish Sea Glacier," 
which will be published in the Irish Naturalist. R. Ll. Praeger, N. Colgan, 
Prof. Carpenter, Prof. Henry and W. B. Wright took part in a discussion 
on the address, 



1 91 8. Irish Societies. 51 

February 14. — J. de W. Hinch, President, in the chair. The business 
of the meeting was a discussion on " The present state of opinion on the 
Darwinian theory." Prof. Carpenter, who opened the discussion, dealt 
with the developments of opinion regarding the origin of species since 1859, 
and pointed out the essential facts of the theories of Weismann, Hu.ton, 
Mendel, and De Vries. The discussion was continued by W. F. Gunn, 
Prof. Henry, N. Colgan, and L. Gubbins. 



CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

May 17. — Excursion to Ballyvolane. — Professor Isaac Swain con- 
ducted a large party to the gravel pits and glen in this vicinity and 
described many features of geological interest. The stream flowing through 
the glen gives the name of " Watercourse " to what was formerly a large 
industrial area in the district, and a small lake known as " the pool " 
gives the name of " Blackpool " to the suburb. The glen was well 
wooded until recent years and is immortalized by song and story in local 
literature as " The Groves of the Pool." 

May 29. — Annual Meeting. — The report was read and a vote of thanks 
passed to James Noonan, Honorary Secretary, who retired after a long and 
active association with the Club. Mr. Holland was appointed as his 
successor. 

Sept. 27. — Excursion to Wood-hill. — Owing to the inclemency of the 
weather, only a small party visited this interesting house and grounds by 
kind permission of Sir Keith Eraser. The house possesses many historic 
associations connected with art and literature. Some remarkably fine trees 
on the grounds were examined. Two fine avenues of oaks were observed 
in the neighbourhood, one of which is reputed to have been planted by 
Sir Walter Raleigh, who lived for a short time in the district. 



DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

January 8. — The Club met at Leinster House, the President (N. 
Colgan) in the chair. 

H. A. Lafferty showed microscopic preparations of germinating 
spores of Ustilago hordei, the fungus which causes " covered ' smut 
of Barley. These preparations clearly showed that the spores on 
germination produce a promycelium which bears conidia. By means 
of these conidia the seedling plants are infected. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter and F. J. S. Pollard showed the anterior 
spiracles of the Horse Bot larva {Gastrophilus equi) and of the Ox Warble 
Maggot {Hypoderma bovis). In the former these spiracles are functional 
being provided with numerous small openings, as described by Enderlein 
{Sitzb. K. A had. Wien, cviii., i, 1899), whereas in the latter they are 
vestigial and useless, the spiracular trachea being plugged with a solid 
chitinous core. 



52 The Irish Naturalisf. March 1915. 

NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

Fulig^o septica var. candidar 

In the month of September last when at Woodlawn, Co. Galway, I 
gathered on moss on a decaying tree-stump a dark cushion-Hke mass 
about an inch and a half in diameter. On looking at it with a lens I 
saw that it was a Myxomycete. The specimen was somewhat weathered 
and the cortex partly dispersed. On microscopical examination I found 
it was a species of Fuligo, but as it differed in some respects from F. 
septica notably in the colour of the lime knots of the capillitium, and 
did not agree with the characters of F. cinerea (which I had never seen) 
I sent it to Miss G. Lister who very kindly wrote as follows : — " I am 
very pleased to see your specimens. If No. i was a puzzler I am not 
surprised. I call it Fuligo septica var. Candida (Pers. as sp.) a new record 
for Ireland. The spores are rather darker than is typical for F. septica 
and measure 7 to 9 ^^ : the character of the long slender lime knots 
and abundant straight hyaline threads is right for jF. septica. We have 
often been puzzled with forms intermediate between var. Candida and 
F. cinerea var. ecorticata, but your specimen lies comfortably on the 
F. septica heap, I think. 

W. F. GUNN. 
Rathgar, Dublin. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Abundance of Lepidoptera in 1917. 

With reference to Mr. Workman's note in the January Irish Natitralisi 
(p. II, supra) , it may be of interest to note that in this immediate neighbour- 
hood the past year showed a very marked increase in several species of 
Lepidoptera. The Silver-washed Fritillary [Argynnis paphia) and the 
Small Heath {Coenonympha pamphilus), both new to me in the district, 
were observed, the former in very large numbers. The Grayling {Satyrus 
semele) was much more numerous than usual and the same applies to 
the Painted Lady ( Vanessa cardui) and the Small Copper [Chrysophanus 
phloeas). Among Moths the Six-spot Burnet {Anthrocera filipendulae) , 
of which I had only one record prior to this year, was found on several 
occasions positively swarming. A specimen of the Convolvolus Hawk 
Moth [Sphinx convolvuli) was taken on September 2nd, this being the 
second occurrence in the neighbourhood of late. The first was taken 
on October 6th, 19 15. Both were captured at the rectory, the first 

hovering round a plant of tobacco in the garden, the second in the house. 

T. W. L. Keane. 
Ardmore. Co. Waterford. 



April, igi8. The Irish Naturalisl. 53 

THE DEVELOPMENT AND DECAY OF THE IRISPI 

SEA GLACIER. 

BY J. DE W. HINCH. 

(Presidential Address to the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 

23 January, 1918.) 

A CONSIDERABLE number of glaciers coalesced to form the 
great ice-sheet which in Quaternary times occupied the 
basin of the Irish Sea, and spread inland over many districts 
along its margin both in Ireland and in Britain. The most 
important of these local glaciers were the ice of the Clyde 
area in the earlier stages, and later the ice-sheet which had 
its origin in north-central Ireland. When the Clyde area 
had become greatly congested by ice from the Scottish 
Highlands, a lobe of the Clyde Glacier debouched through 
the North Channel into the Irish Sea basin, crossing in the 
course of its advance north-east Ulster on the west and 
Galloway on the east. On reaching the Irish Sea the Clyde 
Glacier began to unite with ice from the southern uplands 
of Scotland, from the Cumberland hills, from Wales, and 
later from the centre of Ireland. 

W^e now reach a point where a modern speculation 
regarding the growth and movements of continental ice- 
sheets may be mentioned. Up to very recent times dis- 
cussion on the Ice Age has been hampered and confined 
by evidence drawn from the very restricted glaciers of 
Switzerland and the Himalaya as we know them at the 
present day. This type of evidence has had a rather un- 
fortunate effect on certain controverted questions in glacial 
geology as the movements of the diminutive glaciers of 
modern times are clearly controlled by local gravity and 
the contours of the surrounding surface features. Now 
glacial geologists have been compelled by the evidence in 
the field to ask for a type of ice-sheet, which in earlier 
times moved across great tracts of country without any 
special regard for elevations of moderate height or depres- 
sions of moderate depth. According to the earlier view, 

A 



54 The Irish Naturalist. April, 

the alleged movements of the Irish Sea Glacier would require 
an elevated ice-cap, l3ang over the northern parts of the 
British Isles, to explain its advance, and there is very little 
evidence to support the existence of this ice-cap. Now it 
has been pointed out by G. W. Lamplugh that a great 
glacier, deployed in the direction of the maximum precipita- 
tion, might grow so quickly by deposition of snow upon the 
surface of its outer margin that eventually the ice-sheet 
would begin to create its own local climatic conditions and 
methods of growth, so that finally breaking loose from the 
control of the hills and the control of local gravity, it would 
move forward with very little regard for the lesser contours 
of the ground over which it passed.^ 

The application of this speculation to the ice of the 
Clyde area and afterwards to the Irish Sea Glacier would 
help us out of some of the difficulties, and the recent in- 
vestigations of Nansen and Scott in Greenland and Antarc- 
tica appear to lend support to the theory. 

The Irish Sea Glacier during its development and decay 
created glacial deposits on both sides of the Irish Sea and 
on the south coast of Ireland, and b}^ these deposits, with 
arctic shells and northern erratics, we are able to trace the 
progress of the ice-sheet from district to district. Over a 
considerable part of Antrim and Down the northern ice- 
sheet passed, laying down the boulder-clay and gravels, 
with the typical Scottish erratics and arctic shells. These 
glacial deposits of north-east Ulster are widely developed, 
as far west as the Bann, and have been investigated by 
S. A. Stewart and Joseph Wright, and later by Madame 
Christen. Both S. A. Stewart and Joseph Wright have 
always been staunch upholders of that earlier theory of 
submergence which has been recently challenged, but we 
cannot withhold a tribute to the great accuracy of their 
field-work and the notable contributions which they have 
made to Irish glacial geology. 

The next important locality where the deposits of the 
Irish Sea Glacier are extensively developed is the Isle of 
Man, where Lamplugh and Kendall have proved that the 

^ Glacialista' Mag., vol. i., no. ii, p. 231 (1894). 



19 18. HiNCH. — The Irish Sea Glacier. 55 

ice-sheet passed from north-west to south-cast over the 
higher land of the island, laying down the boulder-clay and 
gravels, which have yielded typical northern erratics and 
many important arctic shells and remains of other animals. 
The Geological Survey Memoir on the Geology of the Isle of 
Man, which was written by Lamplugh and published in 
1903, has had great influence on research in glacial geology 
in the Irish Sea area, challenging as it did, the accepted 
theory of an interglacial submergence, and stimulating 
extended work in the field on the subject. 

Turning from the Isle of Man to the eastern coast of 
Ireland, deposits of the Irish Sea Glacier have been found 
by the writer at various points south of Dundalk. At 
Glaspistol, south of Clogher Head, in Louth, there occurs 
in the floor of the present beach a patch of boulder-clay 
containing northern erratics and shells. South of the Boyne, 
at Benhead, where the cliffs are formed of boulder-clay, 
similar erratics and shells have been found by the writer 
and inland north of Gormanstown, gravels with erratics 
and shells, w^ere discovered by W. B. Bruce, to whom the 
writer is indebted for the report. During the Natural 
History Survey of Lambay, Prof. Seymour, who acted as 
geological director, found that the Irish Sea Glacier had 
overridden the island, laying down boulder-clay containing 
northern erratics, and in the boulder-clay at Saltpan Bay, 
on the northern shore of the island, a number of shell- 
fragments were found by the writer.^ On the mainland 
at Skerries shell-fragments and erratics are reported from 
the sands and gravels near the railway station, while at 
Corballis, on the southern shore of Portrane promontory, 
shell-fragments have been obtained by the writer from the 
boulder-clay. 

The district in the middle of which the city of Dublin 
stands was the first area surveyed by the Geological Survey 
for the new Drift maps, and from many localities in this 
area arctic shells and northern erratics have been obtained." 



1 H. J. Seymour, " Geology [of Lambay]," Irish Naturalist, vol. xvi., 

PP- 3-13 (1907). 

^ Geological Survey Memoir, Geology of Dublin, 1903. 



A 2 



56 The Irish Naturalist. April, 

Previous to this special Drift survey many observers 
had been at work in the Dubhn area, and a number of 
localities had already been noted for their arctic shells and 
northern erratics. During the earlier decades of last century 
Weaver, Scouler, Kelly and Oldham had worked at some 
of the Drift deposits in the district and usually supported 
the theory of a marine origin of both boulder-clay and 
sands and gravels. In the sixties and seventies that great 
leader in Irish glacial geology, the Rev. Maxwell Close, had 
investigated the deposits at Caldbeck Castle and Bally- 
edmonduff, and from these deposits had obtained many 
species of mollusca and Crustacea, i 

In the years 1894-95 Prof. Sollas and R. LI. Praeger had 
investigated the Kill-of-the-C^range and Killiney Bay 
deposits, and many new records were obtained. Fifty-seven 
species of mollusca were discovered ; and the presence of 
fossils from the Lias of Ulster or Scotland, as erratics, was 
noted. In addition to the new field records, a change of 
opinion regarding the origin of the deposits was fore- 
shadowed." 

The southerly- occurrence in the Drift of the Ailsa Craig 
riebeckite had also already been observed by Prof. Cole 
and Prof. Seymour. During the Drift survey many deposits 
with shells and erratics were discovered, and from one of 
these at Larch Hill, on the northern slopes of Tibradden, 
at 650 feet above sea-level, thirty-five species of mollusca 
were obtained.'^ 

Since the survey of the Dublin district was concluded 
many further records have been made, two of which may be 
noticed. In a boulder-clay near the upper edge of the 



1 Rev. Maxwell Close, " The Elevated Shell-bearing (travels near 
Dublin," Joiirn. Roy. Geol. Soc, Ireland, vol. xiv., pp. 36-40 (1H73-77). 

" W. J. Sollas and R. LI. Praeger, " Notes on (ilacial Deposits in 
Ireland," Irish Naturalist, vol. in., pp. 161-66, pp. 194-98 (1894), vol. iv., 
pp. 3-^1-3^9 (1895)- 

'J. de W. Hinch, " A Contribution to the Glacial Geology of County 
Dublin," Irish Naturalist, vol. xi., pp. 229-36 (1902). 



i9i8. HiNCH. — 71ie Irish Sea Glacier. 57 

Killakec valley, at 1,270 feet, shells and erratics have been 
found, and this locality is believed to be the highest eleva- 
tion at which they have been found in Ireland.^ 

Two reports are available from the valley of the Litfey, 
where W. B. Wright and the writer found shell-fragments 
in gravels at Astagob, east of Lucan, and in Lucan demesne, 
between Lucan and Leixlip. These records of shell- 
fragments from the valley of the Liffey are the most 
westerly obtained up to the present. 

In County Wicklow a number of localities may be cited 
as having yielded evidence of the passage of the glacier 
across the district. Last year W. H. Hinde, the engineer- 
in-charge of the construction of the new Bray Head tunnel, 
discovered shells and erratics in the boulder-clay and sand 
through which the timnel was being cut. As the shells were 
found over 1,000 feet from the entrance and nearly 100 feet 
below the surface, this discovery is most interesting. A 
number of arctic shells and northern erratics have been 
obtained by W. H. Hinde and the writer up to the present, 
and further investigations are to be continued during the 
present year. South of Bray Head, towards Greystones, 
shell fragments and erratics have been found by W. B. 
Bruce and the writer in a number of localities, while inland, 
on the eastern slopes of the Great Sugarloaf, the gravel 
deposits have yielded satisfactory results. 

It is now necessary to turn from the western shore of 
the Irish Sea basin in order to follow the course pursued 
by the Irish Sea Glacier after it had crossed the Isle of Man. 
The evidence shows that the ice-sheet, having reached the 
northern coast of Wales, divided into two great lobes in 
order to avoid the Snowdon range, over which it was not 
powerful enough to pass, as in the case of the Isle of Man. 
The eastern lobe swept inland over the low-lying Cheshire 
plain as far south as Shrewsbury in Shropshire, and from 
many localities far inland from the sea arctic shells and 
erratics have been obtained. The western lobe of the 
ice-sheet turned west and south across Caernarvon and 



^ J. de W. Hinch, " The occurrence of high-level shelly-drift, in the 
Killakee Valley, Co. Dubhn," Irish Naturalist, vol. xvii., pp. 99-100 
(1908). 



58 TJic IrisJi Nattiralist. April, 

Anglese\^ and at Moel-Tryfaen, in gravel deposits at 
1,350 feet above sea-level, both erratics and arctic shells 
have been found in great abundance. The great pebble 
ridge at Aberystwyth in Cardigan Bay, yields many large 
boulders of Ailsa Craig riebeckite and chalk-flints, and 
Prof. Fleure, of University College, Aber3'stwyth, considers 
that these northern erratics have been derived from glacial 
deposits recently destroyed by the action of the sea. At 
St. David's Head, in Pembrokeshire, there is evidence of 
the passage of the Irish Sea Glacier, and as far south as the 
Scilly Isles deposits with erratics occur, which may be 
derived from the ground-moraine of the Irish Sea Glacier, 
although G. Barrow, of the Geological Survey, inclines 
towards the view that floating ice from the north was the 
agency by which these deposits w^ere brought to their 
present position. 

Having traced the advance of the Irish Sea Glacier along 
the eastern coast of the Irish Sea basin, the progress of the 
ice-sheet ma}- now be followed south from Wicklow. Here 
the ice-sheet relieved from the restriction imposed by the 
mountain-ranges on both sides of the Irish Sea, began to 
fan out towards the south-west. The widely-spread 
series of deposits known as the Wexford Beds are the result 
of this fanning out, and prove that having extended inland 
in north Wexford up to heights of from 200 to 250 feet above 
sea-level, the ice-sheet travelled south-westward across 
south Wexford and Waterford into east Cork as far as Power 
Head, outside Cork Harbour. These widely-spread deposits 
of marly boulder-clay with overlying gravels have lately 
,bccn investigated by Prof. Cole and T. Hallissy, and in 
addition to the numerous arctic and Pliocene mollusca 
already known to occur, the authors report an extraordinary 
series of erratics. Anthracite and bituminous coal, lignite 
and chalk flints occur in such abundance that the authors 
consider that they have been derived from submarine 
deposits out in the neighbouring sea to the east.^ An 
interesting fact about the marly boulder-clay of the Irish 

* G. A. J. Cole and T. Hallissy, "The Wexford Gravels and their 
bearing on Interglacial Cieology." Geol. Mag., n.s., decade \i., vol. i., 
Pi). 498-509 (^ov. 1914)- 



igiS. HiNCH. — The Irish Sea Glacier. 59 

Sea ice is that where it is found in contact with the boulder- 
clay of the ice-sheet from the centre of Ireland, the marly 
boulder-clay is always overlaid by the boulder-clay of the 
ice from central Ireland. The significance of this fact will 
be seen later when the relative ages of the individual ice- 
sheets come to be discussed.^ 

Having traced the development of the Irish Sea Glacier, 
with its varying deposits, we now turn to some of the 
problems connected with its decay. For practically half a 
century glacial geology in the British Isles was dominated 
by the theory that at least one interglacial period had 
occurred and that during this interglacial period these 
islands had been submerged to at least the upper level of the 
shelly drift, that is to say, the upland glacial deposits of the 
Irish and Welsh hills marked the shore-hnes of the inter- 
glacial sea ; and that the eskers in the plain were sand- 
banks created by the curreiits of the same sea. Let us 
recall some of the opinions put forward by those holding 
this view. Thus we have Prof. Hull, the Director of the 
Geological Survey of Ireland for many years : — " As its 
name imports, it [i.e., the Middle Sand and Gravel] consists 
of stratified sand and of water-worn pebbles, sometimes of 
large size ; and, as it contains marine shells in various 
places, may be regarded as a formation of marine origin, 
which has been strewn over the bed of a comparatively 
, shallow sea." ..." These facts lead us to infer a great 
general depression of the land extending over the northern 
portion of the British Isles . . . and . . . assuming the greatest 
depression to have reached 1,500 feet below the existing 
level, the Irish area must have presented the appearance 
of an archipelago of islands." -And further, we have Mr. T. 
Mellard Reade when writing of " The high and low-level 
shelly, drifts around Dublin and Bray": — " P^ story is 
nothing without a moral, and a geological paper without 
conclusions. . . . The phenomena . . . appear to me to lend 
no support to the Irish Sea Glacier hypothesis. . . . The 



^ Geol. Survey Mem., Geology of Cork, p. 106 (1905). 

2E. Hull, " Physical Geology of Ireland," pp. 112-116 {1891). 



6o flic Irish Xalurulist. Apul, 

general drift uf the materials has been fruni the north-west, 
and they have been swept from the limestone plain far on 
to the granite mountains. . . . The whole of the phenomena, 
in mv judgment, points to submergence."^ 

Now is there any such very strong evidence for this 
theory of an interglacial period with at least one considerable 
submergence ? There can be no a priori objection to the 
theory, as in the European Alps the glaciers withdrew more 
than once during the Glacial period far into the upper 
valleys of the mountains, and from such undoubtedly inter- 
glacial deposits as the Hotting breccia there is the evidence 
that the climate of that interglacial period was rather 
warmer than that of the present day.^ 

When we examine the deposits of sand and gravel which 
were supposed to prove the occurrence of an extensive 
submergence, we find they display none of the well-known 
characteristics of a sea-beach, with its definite local fauna 
and with typical shore pebbles, and there is the further 
difficulty that while the sands and gravels of the Irish 
Sea basin, with their contained exotic shells and erratics, 
may be found at levels varying from 1,200 feet to sea-level, 
their distribution is restricted to definiteh^ limited districts 
and they are wholly absent from neighbouring areas quite 
as favourable to the development of marine deposits. So 
far from the evidence pointing to submergence and depo- 
sition from drifting ice-bergs, all the evidence in the Irish 
Sea basin points to the existence of some geological agent 
sufficiently rigid in its motion and direction to control the 
distribution of shells and erratics in definite directions and 
of a sufficiently prolonged existence to have produced such 
• recent surface features as the Scalp, the Dingle and the 
Montpelier gap. In many places, however, there appear 
sections of glacial deposits which tend to support the inter- 
glacial and submergence theory, and when they had been 
generalized into diagrams it became correct to accept the 



iT. .Mt'llard Keadc, "The High and Low-level Shelly Drifts around 
L)ul)lin and P>ray," IrisJi Xafuralisi, vol. iii., p. 132 (189.}). 

''A. IVnek u. V,. Brin kn' 1 , " ] )i,. Aljnn ini liiszeitalter," Band I., pp. 
}>^y'^S (lyoi-oy). 



i9iS. Hiscn. -The Iriali Sea Glacier. 6i 

view that a Lower and Upper Boulder-clay with intermediate 
Sands and Gravels was proven, and the efforts to lit in ob- 
served facts in the field with this dominant theory confused 
and hampered field-work for many years. The most 
important section in the Irish Sea area is that of Killiney 
Bay, lying between Dalkey and Bray. For many years 
these deposits were accepted as affording definite proof 
of the three-fold nature of the Drift, and it was only in 
1896 that opinion began to move away from that standpoint. 
During the years 1894 and 1895 Prof. Sollas and Mr. R. LI. 
Praeger worked at the glacial deposits of this district and 
brought forward the importance of the part played by ice 
from the north and north-east. Attention was drawn to 
the abundance of shells, fossils and erratics (basalts, chalk, 
flints, Ailsa Craig rock) of northerly origin, and while the 
authors retained a modified view of submergence to account 
for the broken condition of the shells, they considered the 
main mass of the material present to have been brought 
by ice from the north and north-east rather than from the 
north-west, as early investigators had asserted. 

For some years opinion on the subject drifted about 
from point to point in a state of indecision. In 1901 the 
new Drift Survey of Ireland was undertaken by the Geo- 
logical Survey of Ireland, and under the Directorships of 
Mr. (r. W. Lamplugh and Prof. Cole a selected number of 
districts have been surveyed. These investigations destroyed 
the earlier theory of a considerable submergence and reduced 
the interglacial period to the local uncovering of a area — an 
interglacial period such as may have taken in the South of 
Ireland during the time which elapsed between the decay 
of the western lobe of the Irish Sea Glacier and the advance 
of the ice-sheet from the interior of Ireland. 

The theory advanced by Lamplugh that the glaciation 
of western Europe proceeded successively from east to west, 
so that an easterly ice-sheet might have begun to decay 
before a more westerly ice-sheet had reached its maximum, 
gives a certain amount of assistance in solving this question. 
According to this theory the maximum development of the 
ice-sheet of central Ireland would be later in time than the 



02 The Irish Naturalist. April, 

glacier of the Irish Sea basin. ^ In the districts north of 
Dubhn the facts as known up to the present rather tend 
to support the opinion that the deposits of the Irish Sea Ice 
have been largely swept away by a later advance of the 
ice from the centre of Ireland towards the south-east. The 
successive movements in time and space of ice-sheets, are 
of course extremely hard to prove, but up to the present 
we may safely say that there is no evidence which supports 
an inter-glacial period in Ireland of the type known to have 
taken place in the European Alps during the Ice Age. 

The origin of the sands and gravels has yet to be faced. 
The submergence theory was clearly not satisfactory and has 
been abandoned. That the sands and gravels had their 
origin during the later stages of the individual ice-sheets 
may be assumed. The number of sections where the sands 
and gravels obviously overlie the boulder-clay are so 
numerous as to place this beyond question. It must also 
be assumed that the Irish Sea Glacier had reached its 
maximum development and that as a result of an ameliora- 
tion of climate, decay was already setting in. The ice was 
charged with the debris of the ground over which it had 
passed, and as the melting of the ice proceeded great 
quantities of sand and gravel were released. The assumption 
has also to be made that the ice-sheet became stagnant over 
practically the whole Irish Sea basin, and then melted where 
it stood, and that the agents of destruction were at w^ork 
simultaneously over all the area occupied by the ice. As 
decay proceeded the higher ground of the mountains in the 
Irish Sea basin became uncovered and then accelerated 
differential melting took place, both by the direct melting 
of the ice along the landward margin of the ice-sheet and 
by the effects produced by the streams of running water just 
above freezing point, when they left the ice-free land and 
came in contact with the stagnant ice-sheet. In these 
streams, flowing both from the ice-free land and across the 
glacier, the sand and gravels would be sw^ept into the tem- 
porary lakes which had been formed between the margins 
of the ice-sheets and the higher levels of the land. By this 

* G. W. Lamplugh, " British Drifts and the Intcrglacial Problem," 
British Assoc. Report, pp. 545-5^0 York, iyo6. 



i9i8. HiN'CH, — The Irish Sea Glacier. 63 

theory we get a possible explanation of the extraordinarily 
high angles which the bedding of the upland sand and gravel 
deposits display and which cannot be solved by invoking 
either marine or river action. The deposits of many of these 
temporary lakes of glacial times occur in the Irish Sea basin, 
and we need onl}'' mention the deposits of Lake Belfast in 
Ulster and Lake Andreas in Man as examples. 

Such has been, in broadest outline, the history of the 
Development and Decay of the Irish Sea Glacier. Many 
aspects of this history have not been touched upon, and 
on every point which has been mentioned more extended 
information from the field is to be desired. It may be that, 
just as the submergence theor}/ has been discarded, so the 
Irish Sea Glacier theory may, in the light of fuller know- 
ledge, be also relegated to the limbo of lost scientific causes. 
Whatever may be the final decision on the matter, much 
work remains to be done before a decision can be reached, 
and in this work the most desirable attitude which can be 
adopted is an attitude of very active scepticism as regards 
both observation and theory. 

National Library of Ireland. 

NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Some Cork Aliens. 

Writing under this title in the Irish Naturalist, January, 1895 (Vol. iv ' 
p. 20), Mr. R. W. Scully mentions that in the summer of 1891 he came 
across the following aliens growing in a rubbish heap beside the river Lee, 
in the City of Cork : — Alyssuni calycinurn L., Sisymbrium pamionicum, 
Jac(}., Erysimum orientate, R. Br., E. repandum, L., Camelina sativa Cratz, 
Lepidium perfoliatum L., Thlaspi arvense L., Anthemis arvensis L., Brumus 
tectorum L. As he remarks that " it will be interesting to note how long 
the above will hold their ground, and whether they will spread to neigh- 
bouring localities," I went over the ground this year (twenty-two years 
after) and found all those mentioned, with the exception of the two first- 
named, all thriving well, some being particularly vigorous specimens. 
Many have spread in the immediate vicinity and further down the river 
on waste patches near the Marina and Blackrock. I may add that coals 
from the north of England and Wales are deposited near the rubbish heap 
and may have been the medium of transit. 

M. Holland. 

Cork. 




64 The Irish Naturalist. April, 

Possible Hunting-Grounds for the Characeae. 

It is to be hoped that Canon Bullock- Webster's want of success in 
hnding Characeae in the Rosses will not prevent his further visits to tliat 
district of Donegal. To the north of Burton Port lies several lakes with 
sandy bottoms all of which, so far as my recollection serves me, shelter 
these plants. Canon Bullock- Webster seems to have been unaware of 
these lakes and appears to have stopped his quest at Mullaghderg, just 
as he was approaching them. The lakes 1 refer to are those on Cruit 
Island, which is a peninsula at half-tide, and Carnboy Lough on the Car- 
rickfin peninsula opposite Bunbeg. 

North of these there lies in the dunes near Derrybeg another lake known 
by the inhabitants as Lough-na-Carrickagh, which is the Lough Acartan 
of the Ordnance map. In Co. vSligo the lakes at Rosses Point are, I 
think, choked with Charas ; and still further southw^ard is the great 
series of lakes that lie in the dunes along the Mayo coast between Clew 
Bay and Killery Harbour. During the Clare Island Survey this last 
district was left practically untouched, except by the conchologists, but 
might yield surprising results if carefully worked. 

If during his researches Canon Bullock-Webster comes in contact 
with any facts which might throw some light on the conditions under 
which were deposited the enormous masses of " shell marl " or " chara 
marl " underlying many of our Irish peat-mosses, those of us who are 
interested in these deposits would be grateful if he would record these 
facts in the Irish Xatitralist. Personally I have been led to think that 
these deposits, which yield an abundant molluscan fauna — though not 
rich in species — were laid down during a period in which there w^ere 
exceedingly dry and hot summers and possibly cold winters. The 
basement layers of some would seem to date from a very early post- 
glacial period, though deposition may have gone on for long ages. 
Whether any such marls are forming now is, I fancy, a matter of doubt, 
though ;Mr. Welch is confidant that such a state of affairs exists in certain 
favourable localities. Owing to the lowering of the level of some lakes 
the old deposits of marl are being eroded and re-deposited in deeper 
water ; therefore, great care should be taken to ascertain that these 
re-depositions are not mistaken for an original marl in the course of 
formation. Whether any species of Chara is attractive to any species 
of mollusk I cannot, unfortunately, say ; but if it were possible for Canon 
Bullock- Webster to make observations on this subject, some interesting 
geological points miglit be discovered. It is certain that in the days 
when marl was in general formation some of the mollusca, now extremely 
local, were abundant and widespread, e.g., PUinorbis glaber. This may 
be due to the fact that the conditions w.hich suited the Characeae also 
were favourable to the snail, but there is the possibility that the presence 
of the plants may have been desirable, though, of course, not necessary, 
for the sustenance of the snail. 

May 1 add that I should be very much obliged if any reader of this 
note would forward to me any samples of this marl which he may come 



19 1 8. Notes. 65 

across. If dried it is extremely light and easily packed, and half a pound 
would be an ample amount. The sample should be carefully selected 
and free from possible admixture from higher or lower levels, and an 
exact description of its mode of occurrence should accompany it. 1 
would report in this Journal as to its contents. 



A. W. Stelfox. 



Ballymagee, Bangor, Co. Down. 



ZOOLOGY. 
Notodonta bicoloria in Co. Kerry. 

Mr. L. H. Bonaparte Wyse, at the conclusion of his interesting notes 
on this insect {Irish Nat., vol. xxvi., no. 10), mentions a specimen taken 
by a friend of mine in the South of Ireland. As a matter of fact the friend 
in question, Rev. G. Foster, when on a holiday in the Kenmare district in 
June, 1913, was lucky to capture two examples of this rare moth ; both of 
these were beaten out of a small alder wood, in the day-time ; no birch 
in the locality. Very little is known about the habits or life history of 
this moth in this country, and perhaps the larva feeds upon both alder 
and birch. 

Thomas Greer, 

Stewartstown. 

Lepidoptera of Lam bay. 

Will you grant me the space necessary to put on record the following 
two additions, observed this year, to the Lepidoptera of Lambay : — 
Sphinx convolvitli, and Gonepteryx rhamni. Vanessa atalana, V. io, 
and V. cardui were remarkably abundant this year. 

Cecil Baring. 
Bi.shopsgate, London, E.C. 

Pig-eons in Belfast. 

The heavy carting of grain through Belfast from the docks to the mills 
several miles away has led to an enormous increase in the number of 
pigeons in the city. There are more now, I venture to say, in our streets 
than used to be in St. Mark's Square, Venice, and they are quite as tame. 
They freely alight on the pavement at the very feet of passers by, dodging 
vehicles of all sorts and all speeds without apparent injury. Every public 
building affording an\' nesting accommodation is taken full advantage of, 
church towers, spires, ledges, cornices and tympanums being tavouritc 
resorts almost to the extent of nuisance. The people, even the boys, are 
now so accustomed to them and so pleased to see their graceful flights 
that molestation is quite unusual. 

F. J. Bigger. 

Ardrigh, Belfast. 



66 The Irish Naturalist. April, 

IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

January 30. — Annual General Meeting. — Held (by kind permis- 
sion) in the Royal Dublin Society's Theatre, the President (Sir Fred. 
Moore) in the Chair. 

The Secretary (Prof. G. H. Carpenter) presented the Annual Report 
and moved its adoption, which was seconded by Dr. Cosgrave and 
carried. The following is a summary : — 

The Council desires to express gratitude for all the support received in 
the difficult task of keeping up, so far as conditions allow, the activities 
of the Society. 

During the year 191 7 there were 9,430 members' and ticket admissions, 
while the number of entrants paying at the gate was 127,190, yielding 
a total cash receipt of ;^i,6oo 2s. 3d. In 1916 the number of paying entrants 
was 130,043, and the cash received £1,426 14s. 7d. For the first time, 
therefore, under war conditions the gate receipts show a decided increase, 
though wounded soldiers are now admitted free, and avail themselves 
largely of the privilege. This increase of £^173 7s. 8d. in the receipts is very 
encouraging. 

Altogether fourteen life-members and twenty-eight annual members 
have been admitted, besides nine garden svibscribers. 

The total income from subscriptions and entrance fees has been £^$9 14s. 
during 191 7, as compared with /556 12s. in the previous year, an increase 
of £103 2S. 

The increased payments for admission and by members, together with 
a gift of £100 — due to the generosity of the Zoological Society ot London — 
have brought the income during 191 7 within £60 of the expenditure, so 
that while the year began with an adverse balance of £224 i6s. 2d., it 
closes with one of £^285 is. 9d. The Council are glad to have avoided an 
appeal to the members for special gifts, such as were asked for and liberally 
given both in 191 5 and 19 16. By careful economy the expenditure has 
been kept at the lowest possible point, despite the abnormally high prices 
of provisions and fuel. 

No changes have taken place among the offtcers of the Society during 
the year, but the Council wishes to express the deepest regret at the death 
in November of their colleague, Prof. A. E. Mettam, Principal of the Royal 
Veterinary College of Ireland. He had acted as honorary prosector to the 
Society since 1902, and had served on the Council continuously from 1905. 
His constant help in maintaining the animals in health, treating them in 
sickness, and furnishing valuable reports on the causes of their deaths will 
be very greatly missed. 

The stock of animals has now, after more than three years of increasingly 
restricted imports, become seriously reduced. Only £2 has been spent 
in the purchase of new specimens, which are almost unprocurable in the 
present suspension of trade. The Council can only ask tlic indulgence of 



igiS. TmA Societies. 67 

the members and visitors to the Gardens until such time as there may 
be opportunity of replenishing the stock. The Lion House and the 
Monkey House, however, still contain many inhabitants of interest. 

The death of the Gorilla " Empress " in May is the most serious loss 
sustained for many years. Yet it is a matter of great satisfaction that 
she had lived in the Gardens for three years and four months — by far the 
longest time during which a Gorilla has ever lived in the British Isles, and 
only exceeded in the records of Eviropean collections by the seven years' 
residence of a female in Breslau. An account of " Empress " was published 
in the Irish Naturalist for August, 191 7. At the end of the year, the apes 
were happily still represented by the two Chimpanzees " George " and 

Charlie," and by the Hoolock Gibbon. There has been considerable 
mortality among the stock of monkeys, mostly on account of the very 
severe weather of mid-December. Both the Anubis and Hamadryas 
Baboons and two Bonnet monkeys died then ; the Douroucouli and one 
of the Woolly ^lonkeys had been lost earlier in the year. In October died 
the last of the Ruffed Lemurs. It will probably be impossible to replace 
these specimens until after the war. 

Five of the stock of lions have died during the year : the old lion " Conn " 
at the end of December, the Uganda lioness " Mitze " and three cubs. 
These have been balanced by five births — two males and a female, from 
" Red Hugh " and " Nigeria," born on June 17th, and two females from 
" Oseni " and " Sheila," born on July 4th. The collection, therefore, 
still consists of twenty animals, nine males and eleven females. 

A young Leopard, sent from West Africa under great difficulty by Dr. 
Barker, unfortunately died a few weeks after arrival, and two of the 
Pumas died in February. In May two Canadian Black Bears were de- 
posited in the Gardens by the looth Canadian Infantry ; these animals 
are intended as regimental pets for the ist and 2nd Battalions of the 
Leinsters. They are now in excellent condition. The death of the larger 
Elephant " Roma " in July was much regretted, and the losses of the male 
Zebra (April), the Manchurian Stag (October), the Tapir (June), and the 
Hyrax (February) are all serious. The families of Canadian Bison and 
Bornean Zebus continue to flourish, and form noteworthy exhibits. The 
rare Hutia from the Bahamas died in July, and was naturally transferred 
to the National Museum. The deaths of the Wallaroo (in July) and of the 
last Wallaby (in December) have deprived the collections of all representa- 
tives of the Kangaroo family. 

The collection of Birds has been fairly maintained by gifts, but the last 
of the Rheas or American Ostriches died in November, as the result of an 
accident due to a violent fright, probably caused by an aeroplane flying 
over the Park. For some time after such flights became common, many of 
the birds showed great fear, but they are now somewhat accustomed to 
the presence of these new invaders of the air. On account of transit 
difficulties it was found impossible to stock the Fish-hatchery in January 
last. 

The President and Honorary Officers were re-elected. Messrs. C. Wisdom 
flely, G. Knox-Peebles, and Cecil Pim were elected to fill vacancies on the 



6S The Irish Naturalist. April, 191 S. 

Council. The Society's sih'cr medal was presented to Rev. J, A. Walker, 
of the Christian Brothers' Schools, North Richmond Street, Dublin, in 
recognition of an excellent set of photographs taken in the Lion House 
Prof. J. .\. Scott delivered a lecture on the Horse family and allied 
beasts, witli a beautiful series of lantern illustrations. 



DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

February 13. — The Club met at Leinster House, N. Colgan (Pre- 
sident), in the Chair. 

E. J. Sheehy exhibited a culture of soil Protozoa consisting chiefly of 
small Amoebae. The culture had been prepared by inoculating saline 
egg albumen with soil from flower-pots. 

Dr. G. H. Pethybridge showed a piece of wood (said to be a portion 
of the " true cross ") preserved in the Domnach Airgid Shrine, which has 
recently been described in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 
by E. C. R. Armstrong. The section showed that the wood was probably 
part of a small twig or young branch of a tree or shrub, and that it be- 
longed to the region next to the pith. The portion of wood was too 
fragmentary to enable the species of plant from which it came to be 
identified. 



BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

February 19. — ^J. A. S. Stendall delivered an address on " Allotments 
and Allotment Economics." The Vice-President (Mr. Cleland) referred to 
the death of Mr. W. H. Patterson, one of the original members of the 
Club, he having been the first secretary and also the first president of the 
society. A vote of condolence was passed by the members. Mr. Stendall's 
address dealt with the composition of soils and the use and abuse of water ; 
the lecturer emphasised the necessity of taking precautions against allot- 
ment manure heaps becoming the nurseries for countless potential disease- 
carrying house-flies. Mr. Stendall called attention to the all-important 
subject of food values, and all holders were urged to study this matter for 
themselves. It was possible to largely increase the food value of the 
yield from any garden by growing just those vegetables which give good 
value and eliminating such an article of diet as the vegetable marrow, 
which is lacking greatly in food constituents, at the same time taking 
up a large amount of space which might be more profitably used. Arti- 
chokes and parsnips were strongly recommended in place of so man}' 
turnips, which cannot compare with the former from a nutritive stand- 
point. In conclusion, garden friends and foes were dealt with, reference 
being made to the exhibits of interest to the war-time gardener now 
displayed in the Municij)al Mu.seum, 



May, 19 1 8. The Irish Naturalist. 69 

IRISH FOSSIL MOLLUSKS. 

BY R. LLOYD PRAEGER. 

A VERY valuable paperl dealing with the post-Pliocene Land 
and Fresh-water Mollusca of Ireland, which has been in 
preparation for many years, has recently been published by 
Messrs. Kennard and Woodward. As the subject has a 
direct bearing on both faunistic and floristic studies in this 
country, some account of its nature and scope may be 
acceptable to readers of the Irish Naturalist, especially since 
the Journal in which it appears is not readily accessible to 
many Irish workers. 

This paper is without question one of the most important 
contributions to our knowledge of the Irish non-marine 
Mollusca which has as yet appeared. While it represents to 
a great extent pioneer work, on account of the present 
incompleteness of the study of the smaller fossils 
of recent deposits, particularly in Ireland, it contains 
at the same time a great body of detailed informa- 
tion, and forms a wide foundation on which further 
study can be based. The authors have wisely recognised 
its preliminary nature, and have avoided to a great extent 
hazardous generalizations based on the present materials ; 
the major part of the paper is taken up with detailed records 
of sections and of their contained fossils. It should be 
noted at once that the responsibility of the authors stops 
with the determination of material which was sent to them, 
and with a discussion of the origin of the Irish non-marine 
molluscan fauna ; neither of the authors claims to have 
studied the Irish fauna, either living or extinct, on the 
ground. For the material, both geological and zoological, 
on which the paper is based they acknowledge their in- 
debtedness to a large number of collectors ; it may be said 
without injustice to the rest that for the description of 
sections and the collection of the fossil fauna Mr. Welch is 
mainlv resoonsible, as are Mr. Phillips and Mr. Stelfox for 

^ A. S. Kennard and B. B. Woodward : The Post-Pliocene Non- 
marine Mollusca of Ireland. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 
vol. XXVIII., pp. 109-190, 191 7. 

A 



70 



The Irish Naturalist. 



May, 



most of the information regarding the present fauna, its 
characters and its distribution. Apart from the labour of 
working out the mass of material, the authors' most 
valuable contribution is the comparative knowledge which 
they were able to bring to bear, linking up the Continental 
and English forms with those of Ireland. 

The special importance of the land mollusca in distri- 
butional studies has long been recognised ; this is due to their 
comparatively sedentary character and to their specializa- 
tion as regards habitat. It was for this reason that Dr. 
Scharff commenced some thirty years ago the detailed 
study of their Irish distribution, which resulted finally in 
the production of Mr. Stelfox's well-known census, published 
in 191 1. The authors of the paper under review are careful 
to emphasize the same fact. The fresh- water species appear 
on the whole to possess much greater means of dispersal, 
and are therefore of somewhat less value for distributional 
studies : at the same time, the best sections as well as the 
most numerous, are those of old lake deposits ; sections 
yielding land species, such as those found among sand-dunes, 
in caves, raised beaches, or river deposits, being less fre- 
quently met with, or less easy to work, or less satisfactory 
from a stratigraphical point of view. Although the present 
paper is a record of much accomplished, it is clear that 
as regards the study of both land and water deposits only 
a beginning has been made, and it is to be hoped that now^ 
that the living fauna is so well known, Irish conchologists 
will concentrate on the study of the past history of the group, 
which when fully elucidated ought to provide invaluable 
evidence bearing on the much-debated question of the age 
and origin of the fauna and flora of our country. 

In the present paper results are given of the examination 
of y^ sections, which are classified as follows : — 

2 



Kitchen middens 




5 


Raised beaches 




5 


River deposits 




4 


Caves 




5 


Old land surfaces 




27 


Chara marls . . 




30 



igiS. Praegar. — Irish Fossil Mollusks. 71 

The first two groups are mostly of recent date and of little 
palaeontological importance. The third, from its nature, 
cannot yield much non-marine material. It is to the fourth 
and sixth especially that we must look for evidence of value, 
since the cave deposits are often difficult to zone owing to 
disturbance by burrowing animals. Old land surfaces are 
most important, but those hitherto examined have been 
mostly in sand-dunes, where there is great risk of derived 
material. 

Following on the descriptions of sections and lists of their 
moUuscan contents, our authors devote 25 pages to " Notes 
on some of the moUuscan (ienera and Species." There is 
much valuable critical matter here, but Irish conchologists 
will not agree with some of the conclusions reached, and some 
of the statements made are misleading — for instance, 
" Tnincatellina minutissima (Hart.) is said to occur in 
Ireland from a single specimen (since lost) from North 
Kerry," the fact being, as I am informed by Dr. Scharff, 
that two specimens collected by J. R. Hardy at Killarney 
are in the Dublin Museum. The authors have in this 
section occasionally " let themselves go " on points which 
have no reference to the proper subject of the paper, e.g., 
the criticism of Mr. Taylor in connection with Vitrina 
pyrenaica on pp. 159-161. 

The final section of the paper — " The Origin of the Irish 
Non-marine MoUuscan Fauna " — is very interesting, and 
also the most debatable, but I am not qualified to discuss 
it, from the point of view of the Mollusca. The authors 
recapitulate three theories, which they aptly name the 
Edward Forbes theory (with which readers of this Journal are 
well acquainted), the Pan-Germanic theory (" recently 
advocated by J. W. Taylor, that our non-marine moUuscan 
fauna originated in Germany . . ."), and the Glacial 
extermination theory, as ably advocated by Clement Reid in 
these pages (vol. xx., p. 203 et seq.). They discuss all three, 
pointing out that the first was founded on a stud}^ of the 
fauna and flora both fossil and recent, the second on a con- 
sideration of the living non-marine mollusca, and the third 
on palaeobotanical and geological evidence. As regards the 
second, our authors unhesitatingly reject it on the grounds 

A 2 



72 The Irish Naturalist. May, 

that many species of mollusca are found in older strata in 
England than in (lermany, and that a good many British 
species, both recent and fossil, are unknown in Germany in 
either a fossil or recent condition— considerations which 
appear fatal to tlu"s theory, even without appeal to much 
evidence derived from other groups w^hich is equally opposed 
to it. The " (ilacial extermination theory " aftects us more 
nearly, since we are compelled to admit the strength of the 
local geological evidence for a xQvy widespread destruction 
of the fauna and flora during the Ice Age, however much 
we may believe that the zoological and botanical evidence 
points in an opposite direction. Of the man}^ difficulties 
\\'hich the naturalist encounters in this theory, our authors 
lay special stress on the very shadowy character of the post- 
Glacial land-bridge which it postulates, and consider that even 
its assumed existence will not account for the presence of 
such forms as Geornalacus maculosus, Limnaea involitta, and 
L. praetenuis ; while the absence from Ireland of snakes, 
voles, etc., is equally difficult to reconcile with the theory 
of a post-Glacial connection. Admitting its absence, we 
might, like Clement Reid, invoke winds, currents and birds 
to sow our country with seed from which the present flora 
arose (though in the wildest flights of imagination I cannot 
conceive it) ; but what about the Irish post-Glacial and 
existing mammalian fauna ? — not to mention sensitive and 
delicate invertebrates quite unsuited to aerial or marine 
adventures. 

Our authors, then, reject what we may call, from its 
latest and most able exponent, the Clement Reid hypothesis 
— very properly, to my mind. For, in addition to the 
difficulties offered by such considerations as the above, I feel 
compelled to traverse much of the positive evidence which 
that writer brings forward in support of his contentions. He 
states, for instance, that a study of the habitats and range 
oi the Lusitanian plants convinces him that they are very 
recent arrivals, rapidly spreading from local centres of 
dispersal which can still be fixed. I believe that an un- 
biassed study of the question will lead the observer to a 
precisely opposite conclusion. He quotes the " small- 
seededness " of the same group as strong evidence of the 



igiS. pRAEGAR. — Irish Fossil Molliisks. 73 

case of their carriage over long distances. I question if they 
are, as a group, more small-seeded than any other natural 
group, or group selected at random, within the native flora. 
But here I get beyond the bounds of the present notice ; I 
shall hope to return to this portion of the evidence on a 
future occasion. 

There remains, then, the " Edward Forbes theory," and 
this Messrs. Kennard and Woodward adopt in the present 
paper, as they have done on previous occasions, as best 
accounting for the facts of the past and present nature and 
distribution of the molluscan fauna ; this, of course, involves 
the presence of the existing fauna in the country in pre- 
Glacial times, and its survival through the Ice Age. They 
refrain from expressing any opinion as to how this survival 
was effected. As regards the post-Glacial liistory of the 
molluscan fauna, they hnd, especialh-^ in the sand-dune 
deposits, evidence of a climatic optimum in Neolithic times, 
such as has been previously ]Dostulated locally from studies 
of the marine mollusca and other groups, and which is 
widely accepted in northern Europe. 

To one who, like myself, is not a special student of the 
Mollusca, the study of the present paper is rendered difficult 
by the nomenclature which is employed. It is true that as 
regards this vexed question the authors claim to have 
adopted a moderate middle course — they adhere to the 
" modern school " as represented by Hyatt and Grabau, and 
adopt Hannibal's definition of a species — " a number of 
related individuals, having a similar genetic history and 
possessing a tendency to evolve along strictly analogous 
lines." They neither " lump " according to the " Jeffreysian 
school " nor " split " according to the " French school," and 
so far one has no cause for grumbling ; but the names which 
they use for their species are in many cases vmfamiliar to 
all but the few who follo\\- with avidity the search for the 
oldest name — a search which results in the continual 
changing of names. If a paper like the present is to be used 
by any but the small coterie referred to, it must be intelli- 
gible to the general worker at natural liistory ; and until 
something approaching finality is reached, it is nmch better 
to stick to a familiar nomenclature, even at the risk of being 



74 i^Ji'^ IrisJi Naturalht. Mi 



IV. 



out of the fashion. In a paper Uke the one under notice, 
which appeals strongly to all workers at faunistic and 
floristic studies, as well as to geologists, within our islands, 
the use of unfamiliar names merely detracts from its value. 

The table of distribution which concludes the paper 
shows the recent and fossil range of the non-marine mollusca 
of Ireland, Great Britain, France, Germany. Denmark, 
Spain and Portugal and North Africa. The Irish recent fauna 
is set down as numbering 126 species, of which 85 in all 
have so far been definitely recognised as Irish fossils. 

It is as refreshing as it is unusual to find, in a paper hailing 
from the other side of the Channel, Irish place-names 
correctly spelled ; cases are not very rare in which Irish 
records are rendered useless by the impossibility of trans- 
lating the place-names into designations which any one in 
Ireland ever heard of ; in the present paper such names 
are a model of accuracy. 

Dublin. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gilts include a Badger from Mr. H. 1j. Warren, a pair t)f W'ootl 
Pigeons from ^Ir. H. A. Smith, a pair of hybrid Egyptian Geese from 
the Board of Public Works, a pair of Mandarin Ducks, a pair of Japanese 
Fowl, and three Golden-Amherst Pheasants from Lady Blake, two cock 
Golden-Amherst Pheasants from ^Irs. Morgan, and a Swan from Mrs. 
\i. Darley. A Murine Opossum has been bought for the collection. 



BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

March ly.- Tlif \'ice-President (A. M'l. C]. eland) hi the- c\va\\\ 
S. A. BiiNNETT gave a lecture on the " Distribution of some of our I-ocal 
Plants." The ])a])er was illustrated by lantern slides, mups, and 
specimens. In ih-' (Hscussion which followed the Rev. C. 11. Waddrll, 
B.D., J. Stendall, and the Vice-President took part 'Jhrcc new members 
were elected. 



i9i8. Irish Societies. 75 



DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

■March 13. — The Club met at Leinster House. The President (X. 
CoLGAN, jNI.RT.A.) exhibited a series of sUdes illustrating the sclereids 
or stone-cells occurring in the pulpy fruits of certain genera of Ericaceae. 
These bodies varied in form from rods of slender, angulated outline to 
plates of rounded or elliptic contour, suggestive of the dermal deposits 
of the holothurians or sea-cucumbers, though in all cases destitute of 
the perforations so characteristic of the "deposits" in this group of 
echinoderms. While fairly constant in the range of outline for each 
species, many different tvpes of these deposits occurred in the genus 
Vaccinium, of which seven North American species were examined. 
In the closely allied genus Gaylussacia, the American Huckleberry, two 
species, G. frondosa and G. resinosa, were found to have these cells not only 
distributed through the pulp of the berry, but forming a dense scaly coat 
round the seeds. A very distinct type occurred in the berry of 
Pernettya, a South American genus of Ericaceae ; and forms resembling 
those of the North American Vaccinium erythrocarpmn and V. crassifoUinn 
were found in the fruits of the [Mediterranean Arbutus Andrache and 
A. Unedo. Even the smallest, those of Vaccinium pallidum, displayed 
their striae quite clearly under a half -inch objective. There is obviously 
a wide field open here for further investigation. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed mounts of larval fiat-fishes illustrating 
the translation of the eye from the one to the other side of the head during 
transformation. 

J, N. Halbert showed an undescribed Lasioseius, a genus recently 
established by Dr. Berlese in his revision of the Seius-group of the family 
Gamasidae. The following is a brief description of the male, of which a 
single specimen was found by Mr. A. D. [Michael on the seashore at 
Swanage some years ago, and a second specimen occurred recently under 
decaying seaweed on the rocky shore at Malahide. 

The shape is ovate and the size about 768^/, x 537/7. ; the dorsal surface 
is finely punctured and reticulated. The species is chiefly remarkable 
for the seven pairs of long spines on, or close to, the side margins, and 
there are two more on the front margin of the body. These spine-like hairs 
are very stout and smooth except at their extremities, which are flattened 
and distinctly spinous. The V-shaped sternal plate has three pairs of 
sharp side-processes and ends in a point ; the anal plate is small, with 
emarginate sides and a long terminal hair. The peritreme is markedly 
sinuate and opens a little in front of the last pair of legs. The mandibles 
are small, with short side-processes. The legs, with the exception of 
the first pair, are remarkably stout, and are armed on their upper surfaces, 
with spines like those on the body ; the hairs on their under surfaces arc 
sharply pointed. This distinct species may be called Lasioseius fucicola. 
It will shortly be described in detail in a paper to be communicated to the 
Royal Irish Academy. 



^6 The Irish Naliiralist. May 



COSMOS CLUB. 

Nu\i:.Mi;iiK 3. A discussion t()t)k place, opened by W. 13. Wright, on 
' Possible Migrations of the Poles." 

Decemrer 3. — The evening was spent in discussion as to the programmes 
of future meetings, the scope of the Club, and several questions of scientific 
interest. 

January 14. —Discussion on the Scientihc Literature available in 
Dul:)lin : how it may be made more available to workers, and more fully 
representative in the various subjects : opened by R. Lloyd Pracger. 
As a result, a committee was appointed to carry out the suggestions 
contained in the title given. 

February ii.— Discussion on the Determination of Sex, opened by 
J. R. D. HoLTBY, M.B. 

INIarch II. — Discussion as to whether a National Union of Scientihc 
Workers is desirable. A vote taken at the close resulted in a tie. 

April 13. — Dr. W. J. Crawford of Belfast gave an account of his 
physical experiments on the spiritualistic phenomenon of " levitation." 
A discussion ensued. 



OBITUARY. 

WILLIAM HUGH PATTERSON. 

By the death of W. H. Patterson on February 5, the Belfast Field 
Club lost one of its few remaining original members. Joining the Club 
at its inception in 1863, Mr. Patterson acted as Secretary lor the year 
1864-65. and occupied the Presidential Chair during the two years 1883-84 
and 1884-85. He had a wide interest in archaeological and natural 
history studies, and though he ditl not publish much he added materially 
to our knowledge of the fauna, flora and antiquities of the north of Ireland 
by collecting and observing, and furnishing his results to others. Linguistic 
studies also attracted bini, and he compiled a Glossary of Words in use 
in the Counties of Aiilrini and Down, which was published in book form 
by the Fnglish Dialect Society in 1880. He was an ex-President of 
the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, and for forty-tive 
years a member of the Ro\al Irish Academy. 



iQiS. Jackson. — Limnaea glabra in Ireland ? 77 



LIMNAEA GLABRA IN IRELAND? 

BY J. WILFRID JACKSON, F.G.S. 
Hon. Secretary, Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The occurrence of Limnaea glabra in Ireland is a matter of 
some dispute among conchologists. A. W. Stelfox, in his 
" List of the Land and Freshwater Molhisks of Ireland " 
(Proc. R. I. Acad., xxix., 1911, pp. 65-164), says : " There 
are several old records for this shell — Cork, Dublin, and 
Belfast — but no specimens are forthcoming " {op. cit., 
p. 129). It has been suggested that the " Limnetis glaber " 
of these early records (of Thompson, Humphreys, and 
others) is perhaps the young of a slender form of L. pahi^stris 
found living in marshes and known to occur in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cork and Belfast (Stelfox, op. ciL, p. 112). It 
is of some interest, therefore, to record that undoubted 
examples of L. glabra from Cork exist in a collection of 
British Shells formed by the late Lord de Tabley. This 
collection was acquired after his death (c. 1895) by Mrs. 
Gresham, of Knutsford, and has recently been presented 
to the Manchester Museum. It would appear that Lord de 
Tabley, at one time, had the intention of publishing a work 
on " British Mollusca." 

The De Tabley specimens of L. glabra, like most of the 
other species, are in small pill-boxes, with the name and 
locality — Cork — written on the lid. They are quite unlike 
any variety of L. palustris known to me. The largest 
example measures 16 x 5,5 mm., and all the shells agree 
closely with English specimens of L. glabra. 

Other Irish shells contained in the De Tabley collection 
are L. involula ; L. tnmcahila (Limerick) ; and Succinca 
oblonga (Cork). There are no other examples of L. glabra in 
the collection. 

Manchester Museum, 



y8 The Irish Naturalist. May, 



Note by R. A. Phillips. 

The evidence that Limnaea glabra lives or Kved in the 
neighbourhood of Cork is unsatisfactory and incomplete, 
and Mr. Jackson's note, though interesting, leaves the 
matter still in doubt. 

Jeffreys, in 1831 [Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. xvii., p. 520), 
stated that it was found in " Ireland (Rev. James Bulwer)," 
but gave no locality. William Thompson, apparently 
doubtful, wrote Bulwer and Jeffreys. Bulwer replied that 
the " shell so noticed was considered by him to be but a 
variety of L. pahistris." Jeffreys replied in a letter dated 
8th June, 1840, that he had recorded the shell on the 
authorit}' of " the late Dr. Goodall," who had received the 
shells from Mr. Bulwer. He also added in his letter, " I 
have, however, two or three undoubted specimens among a 
collection of Irish shells which I purchased from Mr. John 
Humphreys of Cork — the tray which contained them was 
labelled " Cork." 

Thompson next wrote to Humphre3^s, who replied that 
he had not identified the species, but that the note of locahty 
appended to the shells alluded to by Mr. Jeffreys was 
strictly correct. 

Humphreys, in his list of Cork mollusca, published 1845, 
records L. glabra as—" Found once near Cork, I believe 
near Blarney," a very indefinite statement, considering his 
reply to Jeffreys. In an old manuscript list of Cork shells 
which I have seen it is stated that Mr. Humphreys could 
not remember where he had found this species. The old 
records for Dublin and Belfast are not supported by the 
existence of specimens or other satisfactory evidence. 

During and since Humphreys' time many conchologists 
have collected in the neighbourhood of Cork, but none seem 
to have found L. glabra there or elsewhere in Ireland. 
Whether the shells alluded to by Jeffreys were really collected 
near Cork, or whether they might have got transferred by 
accident or otherwise from one tray to another, does not 
seem clear from the above history. It is, therefore, to be 
regretted that the label on the specimens in the De Tabley 



agiS. Phillips. — Limnaea glabra in Ireland ? 79 

collection is equally vague and throws no further light on 
the subject. 

Further search may reveal the presence of this interesting 
mollusk in the Cork district, but the evidence at present 
available is, in my opinion, too imperfect to be accepted by 
students of the distribution of species as proof that L. glabra 
is a native of Ireland. 

Cork. 



NOTES. 

Natural History Societies in Derry and Cork. 

I have lately come across, among the pamphlets preserved in the 
National Library, an Annual Report (for 1871) of the Natural History 
and Philosophical Society of Derry, and another (for 185.1-55) o^ 'thp 
Cork Cuvierian Society. I should much like to have further information 
concerning the history of these two local societies, and to see further 
issues of their publications. Possibly some reader of the Irish Naturalist 
may be in a position to assist me. 

R. Lloyd Pr.\eger. 

Dubhn. 

Scarcity of the Fieldfare and Redwing. 

The scarcity of the Fieldfare appeared to be very noticeable in England 
last winter {Brit. Birds, xi., p. 231), but so far I have seen no reports of 
its numbers in Ireland. As far as this district is concerned I have not seen 
a single bird this season, though I have very carefully watched for it almost 
■every day. Redwings also appear to me to be very scarce. I saw a few, 
not more than half a dozen birds altogether, for about a fortnight in 
December, but none before or since. The scarcity of a species in one 
particular district may be a matter of small importance, but should it be 
general throughout the country it would be a pity to allow the fact to 
pass unnoticed. This can only be determined by means of local reports. 

Ballylinan, Athy. W. M. Abbott. 



Woodchat-Shrike on Mig-ration, obtained at Tuskar Rock. 

I am very much obliged to Mr. J. McGinley, light-keeper on Tuskar 
station, for informing me of the occurrence of a Woodchat-Shrike on 
Tuskar Rock. In his letter to me he states that, on his arrival on the 
rock on May 26th last, he noticed a strange bird, and, on looking up 
the books, pronounced it to be a Woodchat-Shrike. It was collected 
the same day by the Principal Keeper, Mr. Callaghan. When I was in 



8o The Irish Naturalist, May, 19.1S;. 

Dublin on February 22nd last Mr. W. Williams very kindly allowed me 
to examine the mounted skin, and told me that he had received the speci- 
men in the flesh for the National Museum from Mrs. Barrington on June 
9th, just a fortnight after it had been collected. I was thus enabled to 
confirm the identity of the bird so accurately determined in the first 
instance by Mr. J. McGinley. Mr. Williams said that this Shrike was in a 
very emaciated condition, and Mr. McGinley stated, in his letter to me, 
that it looked very tired when he discovered it on the rock. I should 
have been glad had the bird in the flesh passed through my hands in the 
first instance, to enable me to make a thoraugh anatomical investigation 
of the body. Anyone who has read the previous papers which I have 
published dealing with rare casual visitors, collected at light-stations, will 
notice what a store of valuable information may be obtained by ana- 
tomical investigation in regard to the probable peregrinations of such 
migrants and concerning other problems on migration. May I, therefore, 
be permitted to appeal, through the medium of the Irish Naturalist, to 
hght-keepers and their friends who may happen to see this note, to send 
me any rare birds which may be obtained at light-stations ; especially 
those from Tuskar, Rockabill, Maidens, Inishtrahull, and Tearaght, at 
which places I have made a special study of bird-migration ? I have no 
wish to keep the birds in question, my sole aim being to send them, or 
see that the}' are sent, to the National Museum, Dublin, their rightful 
destination, where I have sent all rare birds (from light-stations) which 
have passed through my hands. 

The occurrence of this Woodchat-Shrike is highly interesting, for on 
looking up the literature of the subject I find that only one other specimen 
has been found in Ireland. This was taken at Blackwater Bank lightship, 
Co. Wexford, on the night of August i6th, 1893, nearly twenty-five years 
ago. Unfortunately only its leg and wing were preserved. ( Vide Migration 
of Birds at Irish Light-Stations, Analysis of Reports, 1881-97, P- ^. R- ^i- 
Barrington). The bird from Tuskar is, therefore, the first whose entire 
skin has been preserved and mounted ; it is also the first taken on a 
rock light-station. 

C. J. Patten. 

The University, Sheffield, 



Meaninjf of " 5winey " and " Thricecock." 

In Kirke Swann's " Dictionary of English and Folk-names of British 
Birds " (19 1 3), Swinepipe , of which Swiney may be only an abbreviation, 
is stated to be the Redwing, and Thrice Cock the Mistle-Thrush, meaning 
literally the Thrush-Cock. The Rev. C. W. Benson gives Hayjack as a 
provincial name for the Linnet, but in Norfolk this word signifies a 
Whitethroat, or a Blackcap, in allusion to their nests made of bents. 

J. H, GURNEY. 

Keswick Hall, Norfolk. 



June, 191S. The Irish Xatiirah'si. 81 



THE CONVOLVULUS HAWK-MOTH IN IRELAND. 

BY J. N. HALBERT, M.R.I. A. 

The season of 1917 was remarkable for an abundance of 
insect life and in no groups was this more noticeable than 
amongst the butterflies and moths. The occurrence of the 
Convolvulus Hawk-Moth {Sphinx convclvuli) in unusual 
numbers is interesting, as it is an uncommon insect during 
most years in these countries. Towards the end of August 
it was often noticed in the vicinity of Dublin and records 
of its occurrence were received from various Irish localities. 

It is now known that this fine moth was generally com- 
mon in Great Britain last year in late summer and early 
autumn, having been observed in many places ranging from 
the Isle of Wight and Cornwall to the Shetlands and the 
Hebrides. No doubt it was also common throughout 
Central and Southern Europe, though of this there are no 
available records, but the appearance in numbers of this 
insect in Britain is always preceded by its abundance abroad. 

Birchall ^ remarks that it was very common in Dublin 
and the adjoining counties in the year 1859, and the same 
appears to have been the case last August and September. 
The Killiney and Swords districts were specially favoured. 
Mr. W. Ruttledge writes that at Lissen Hall in the latter 
localit}/ it was first noticed on August 24th when one flew 
into a room ; a few days later " as many as four or five moths 
could be seen at the one time on the flowers of the tobacco 
plant (Nicotiana). The moths seemed to be very tame 
and they could be caught with no better weapon than a 
hat ! and when disturbed they came back again very soon." 
For more than a week they were observed in numbers every 
night, but owing to a change of weather they then dis- 
appeared. 

In order to give an idea of the prevalence of the moth 
in the Dublin district I may mention that it was observed 
at Rush, Swords, Malahide, Howth (in a house on the south 
side), Lambay ^ (caught by Mr. Baring), Killiney, Bally- 

^ " Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland," p. 5. 
2 Irish Naturalist, xxvii., p. 65. 

A 



82 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

brack, Loughlinstown, Foxrock, Rathfarnham (drowned in 
a conservatory tank), Dundrum, Blackrock , Merrion, and 
the Glasnevin Botanic Gardens (caught in one of the green- 
houses), and a few were captured in city and suburban 
roads. 

Further afield it was observed in Co. Donegal at Rath- 
mullen and Greencastle, where Mr. A. R. Nichols caught one 
in the porch of the Fort Hotel on the 2nd September. It 
has already been recorded from the counties of Antrim and 
Down by the Rev. W. F. Johnson.^ A number of large 
hawk-moths which Mr. T. Greer believes were this species 
were reported to him as having been common in gardens 
at Cookstown in Co. Tyrone. It was also found at Killala 
in Co. Mayo, and in a cornfield near Drogheda in Co. Louth. 

In the midlands, as Mr. Pack-Beresford tells me, many 
specimens were seen near Athlone flying to the flowers of 
Sweet-scented Tobacco [Nicotiana affinis), a plant which is 
known to have great attractions for this moth. Mrs. M. E. 
Morris writes that one was captured and several observed 
in a garden at Bessborough in Co. Kilkenny. In the south 
it visited the suburbs of Wexford town as well as Ennis- 
corthy and Courtown in the same county. Mr. F. W. Keane 
reports * that a specimen was caught hovering over tobacco 
plants in a garden near Youghal in Co. Waterford. 

The earliest date of capture was loth August, but the 
majority were taken during the last week of August and in 
the early part of September, the latest date being the 6th 
October. Most of the specimens were considerably the worse 
for wear, though a few were in a good condition, notably 
one found clinging to the window netting of Killiney Parish 
Church by Mr. W. Rigby on the 26th August. 

The question has been asked : Were these hawk-moths 
native bred or were they travellers engaged in a great 
migration from warmer countries ? There can be little 
doubt that for the great majority, if not all of them, the 
latter is the true explanation of their occurrence. This 
insect is of well-known migratory habits, and one need but 
admire its large and powerful wings and trim-built body 

3 Irish Naturalist, xxvii., p. 12.. 
* Irish Naturalist, xxvii., p. 52 



i9i8. Halbert— r/z5 Convolviilus Hawk-Moth. 83 

to realize its capacity for rapid and sustained flight. It is 
not surprising to find that this moth has spread over a great 
part of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and has even reached the 
Austrahan region where it is represented by a variety differ- 
ing shghtly from the typical form. It appears to be absent 
from the American continent, but an allied species is recorded 
from there. 

It has been argued that the fresh condition of many 
of the British specimens is strong evidence in favour of 
their having been reared in these countries. This does not 
follow, however, for given fine weather and a favourable 
wind such barriers as the North Sea and the Irish Sea offer 
small obstacles to such an insect. 

Then if the moth breeds to any extent in these islands 
one w^ould expect that the caterpillar and the pupa would 
be more frequently observed ; as a matter of fact the records 
of these early stages are noticeably few when compared with 
the relative frequency of the moth. When Mr. C. G. Barrett^ 
wrote of this species in 1895 he doubted if there were records 
of the finding of twenty caterpillars in the British Isles. 
Mr. J. W. Tutt,^ wTiting in 1904, gave a complete and in- 
teresting list of about fifty occurrences, though none of 
these refer to Ireland. 

With regard to the breeding of this moth in Ireland 
Mr. W. F. de V. Kane" remarks "it appears probable that it 
breeds in Ireland in fine seasons," but he does not 
say if the caterpillar or pupa was actually found. There 
is no doubt, however, that the insect occasionally 
attempts to establish itself in this country, for the 
caterpillar was found by Mr. T. Stawell at Mallow, Co. Cork, 
during the summer of 1902, an occurrence which was recorded 
by Professor G. H. Carpenter.^ The caterpillar seems diffi- 
cult to rear successfully, and this one died before reaching 
the pupal stage. A coloured drawing which I made at 
the time shows that it belonged to the entirely green type 



5 " The Lepidoptera of the British Islands," vol. ii., p. 27. 
® " British Lepidoptera," vol. iv., p.343. 
' " A Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland," 1901, p. 19. 
^ Irish Naturalist, xi., p. 46. 

A Z 



84 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

with faint side lines of darker colour and black spiracles, 
the tail-horn was yellow with a black tip, a known form 
of this variable caterpillar. 

There are also other reasons for believing that the insect 
seldom breds in Britain. Mr. J. W. Tutt^ states there is 
evidence that the late moths are " killed off by the cold 
without depositing their eggs, and that they are exter- 
minated every winter following their appearance in this 
country." He goes much further than this when he sug- 
gests that it rarely survives the winter in the greater part 
of Europe and Northern Asia, the specimens taken in those 
regions being almost all immigrants or the direct descendants 
of immigrants from warmer climates. Nevertheless the 
moth is probably increasing in many northern localities, 
and we may yet see it established as a breeding species in 
Britain. 

In view of last year's invasion by this hawk-moth it is 
likely that the caterpillar or pupa may be found in Ireland 
during the coming season and consequently a short note 
on the life-history may be of some use. 

The eggs are said to be laid on the food plants which, 
in these countries, are the common bindweeds Convolvulus 
arvensis and C. septum. The caterpillar may be sought 
for in June and July ; it is a large creature measuring four 
inches when fully grown and the colour may vary from a 
uniform light green to a dark brown with yellow and grey 
markings. The tail-horn may be black, or fawn, or yellow 
tipped with black. When full-fed it enters the ground 
and changes to a large reddish-brown pupa which may be 
recognised as the species by the separate proboscis sheath 
which projects well below the head. It remains buried for 
about four weeks and the moth usually emerges in August. 
The pupa has been frequently dug up in potato fields where 
the bindweed is common. It was at one time thought that 
the caterpillars were in the habit of concealing themselves 
amongst earth or dead leaves during the daytime, com.ing 
out at night to feed. Professor Poulton and other ento- 
mologists have pubHshed interesting accounts of the rearing 

* " British Lepidoptera," vol. iv., p. 376. 



igiS. Halbert.- r//e Convolvulus Hawk-Moth. 85 

of this moth and no such tendencies were noted, although 
the caterpillars were surrounded with suitable materials for 
their supposed " digging in" habits. On the contrary they 
are lethargic showing neither a disposition to wander away 
from their food-plants nor an aversion to daylight It 
has been stated, however, that the caterpillar is skilful in 
concealing itself amongst fohage, and it does not assume 
the sphinx-like attitude so noticeable in the Privet Hawk- 
Moth and allied species. 

A point in this life-history which will occur to the naturalist 
is that if the eggs *are laid on the bindweed in the autumn 
what becomes of them when these annual plants lie down ? 
It may be suggested that the eggs are laid in the following 
summer by moths which have survived the winter months, 
but there is no evidence in support of the belief that this 
moth hybernates in the imago stage. A more probable 
explanation is that the eggs are laid on the food plants in 
the summer by females which have survived the winter 
as pupae. Possibly some additional light may be thrown 
on what really does occur in these countries as a result of last 
year's immigration. 

It has already been mentioned that this moth was com- 
mon in 1859, and Mr. Kane says it was very numerous in 
the fine dry summer of 1887, while it occurred in many 
Irish localities in the years 1882, 1891 and 1892. 

The abundance last year of the common white butter- 
flies was very noticeable. The species of Vanessa were 
also abundant, more especially the Peacock Butterfly 
[Vanessa to), and hybernated specimens of this insect duly 
made their appearance in the spring. It may also be of 
interest to record the occurrence of the Clouded Yellow 
(Colias edusa). I saw a fresh example of this beautiful 
butterfly flyirg over the sandhills at Malahide, at the end of 
August. In endeavouring to account for this abundance of 
lepidoptera during the summer and autumn of last year 
it should be remembered that the previous winter was 
prolonged and fairly dry ; it was also colder than usual, 
at least in the British Isles. Such conditions often herald 
a " good " insect year. 

National Museum, Dublin. 



86 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

NOTES ON SOME ALIEN PLANTS OF 
COUNTY DUBLIN. 

BY NATHANIEL COLGAN, M.R.I. A. 

The discrimination of native from introduced species is one 
of the most difficult of the problems which confront the 
compilers of local floras, and this difficulty is to a great 
extent insurmountable, since it arises mainly from the 
defect of early records for alien plants. If systematic 
botany were not what it is, a creation of yesterda^^ if some 
tenth century Linnaeus had arisen to lay thus early the 
foundations of the science and render possible the pro- 
duction on modern lines of a twelfth century Flora of 
Co. Dublin, how profoundly would our views as to the 
standing of certain species be altered. How conspicuous 
would be the absence fromi such an early Flora of a host of 
denizens and colonists now fully domiciled in the country, 
what a striking poverty of species we should find, and how 
convincing a proof we should have of the far-reaching 
effects of unconscious human agency in the enrichment 
of a fiora. If we regret the want of such early historical 
records as would give precision and certainty to our judg- 
ments on the standing of doubtfully native species that is 
all the more reason why we should endeavour to supply 
the future local botanist with trustworthy materials. It 
is not enough to note the first appearance of immigrant 
species. Their var3dng fortunes should be followed up by 
continuous observation, and the object of these notes is 
mainly to record the result of such observation applied to 
a few aliens whose first appearance or apparent establish- 
ment was recorded in the " Flora of Co. Dublin " fully 
thirteen years ago. The numbers prefixed to records here 
refer to the botanical districts as set out in the Flora. 

Sisymbrium pannonicum, Jacq. 

5. Ilalf-a-dozen plants at Howth railway station, 19 15. 7. Two 
plants at Ballsbridge, 191 7. 8. Several plants in Pembroke Park, 
1907 ; a few plants on the railway line at Dalkey station, one at Killiney 
station, fully 150 on the abandoned railway line south of KiUiney, and 



igiS. CoLGAN. — Alien Plants of Co. Dublin. B)y 

about two dozen of plants on Victoria Wharf, Kingstown, all in 191 7. 
In the last station the plant was undoubtedly introduced with fodder 
for army horses which was stacked here in large quantity during the 
Easter week insurrection of 191 6. 

First noticed in Co. Dublin at East Wall, Dublin Harbour, in 1894. 

5. Columnae, jacq. 

2. One plant below the Windmill, Skerries, 191 3. 4, A few plants 
by the roadside between Lucan and Woodlands, 1915. 8. Two plants 
on Pigeon House road, 1907, and six plants in 1909 ; one plant by Pigeon 
House gate, 191 3 ; thirty plants in Pembroke Park, 1907, and several 
still there in 19 13. Two plants on the railway at Killiney station, 191 7. 

First noticed in Co. Dublin in association with the preceding species 
in 1904. The ultimate establishment of both species in Co. DubUn seems 
not unlikely. 

Lepidium ruderale, Linn. 

8, In July, 191 7, I found twenty-five fruiting plants of this species 
in association with Sisymbrium pannonicum, Diplotaxis muralis, and 
■Linavia minor on the abandoned railway line near the Shanganagh River, 
south of Killiney. 

An alien of rare appearance in Co. Dublin, as I can find no previous 
record of more recent date than that for Kilbarrick in Flora Hihernica, 
1836. 

L. perfoliatum, Linn. 

8, Seven fruiting plants found on the abandoned railway track south 
of Killiney in July, 191 7, associated with the preceding species. 

This is the first Co. Dublin record for this plant, a native of south- 
eastern Europe. It has been already recorded as a casual from Co. 
Kildare, from Cork City, and from Belfast. 

Melilotus parviflora, Desi. 

7, About fifty plants found in 19 15 growing in association with 
Matricaria discoidea on the footpath of a new road leading to Inchicore 
brick-works. A native of south-eastern Europe here first recorded for 
Co. Dublin. Previously recorded as a casual from Newry, Belfast, and 
near Water ford. 

Matricaria discoidea. DC. 

The rapid spread of this American alien in Co. Dublin and in Ireland 
since its first detection in 1894 offers a parallel amongst land plants to 
the spread of the aquatic Elodea canadensis or Water Thyme. The 
following is a selection from notes on its Dublin distribution made during 
the interval 1910-1917 : — 2. About five dozens of plants on the Dorn, 
Skerries, 1910, and about as many more in 191 2 in adjacent waste ground, 
the site in the preceding year, of a travelling circus ; very abundant along 



88 The Irish Naturalist. June 

the steep road north of Skerries leading from Sea Mount to the Hill, also 
scattered thence for half a mile along the road to Milverton demesne, and 
appearing again at Balcunnin and at a cross-roads near Skerries, 191 4. 

3. On the railway at the northern end of Donabate railway station, 19 14. 

4, Many hundreds of plants on the railway siding and in waste ground by 
the Royal Canal, Cross Guns, in profusion by a cottage higher up the 
canal, frequent at Liffey Junction, some dozens of plants at the Eighth 
Lock and several hundreds thence at intervals for more than a mile by 
Cabra road to Phibsborough, all in 191 5. 5, Widespread over the north 
and east sides of Howth Head in 191 5 : e.g., fully 1,000 plants on the road 
from the police barracks to the village, swarming in the school play- 
ground at Ball of Glass, and many hundreds along the road thence to 
Waldron's, at intervals along the road from Waldron's to the Hut, and 
along the bye-road by Waverley Hotel, a few plants at the entrance to 
Light-house Road, and scattered thence along the road to the Summit 
tram station. A few plants by the roadside at Baldoyle and by the road 
from Coolock to Raheny, with about fifty plants at Raheny village, all 
in 1915. 7. In several stations by the Grand Canal in 1915 : e.g., By Canal 
Harbour, Dolphin's Barn, by the Third Lock, and abundant by a cottage 
between that and the Second Lock. Fully 100 plants by a new road 
leading to Inchicore Brick-works, 191 5. Abundant in one spot by the 
Tallaght road, near Green Hills, and sparingly near Drimnagh, and in a 
gravel pit at Robin Hood, 19 16. A few plants in Chapelizod village and 
about 100 on the Ballyfermot road, 19 15. In fair quantity round Mrs. 
Healy's farm yard, Bohernabreena, 19 17. 8. A few plants on Victoria 
Wharf, Kingstown, 19 10, and about fifty in the Harbour yard there, 19 12; 
fully 100 plants on the Ballycorus road, and frequent by a cottage near 
Bride's Glen ; about 200 plants on the main road, Loughlinstown, and 
swarming round a cottage there, and by other cottages on the Commons, 
1915. In Blackrock Park, 1917. 

This annual species now established in Ireland for a quarter of a century 
is highly fertile in Co. Dublin, as it is no doubt throughout the island. A 
well-grown plant bears about fifty fruiting heads, and an average of ten 
of the.se gave 167 ovules per head, of which the perfect seeds averaged 
133. It grows most vigorously on limestone drift soils. On some of the 
higher bye-roads of Howth Head where quartzite comes to the surface the 
plants become very stunted. 

Artemisia Absinthium, Linn. 

7. The chief Dublin station for the Wormwood has hitherto been in 
the heart of the city on the extensive rubbish mounds left by the demo- 
lition of tenement houses on the making of tlic new thoroughfare of Lord 
Edward Street in 1886. A clearance made for a garden plot in 191 6 has 
greatly reduced the plant in this station, where it was previously abundant, 
and in the adjacent station of St. Nicholas' graveyard it has been quite 
exterminated by the throwing down of the old wall in 1917. A new and 
much wilder station, however, yielding fully fifty large plants and many 



i9i8. CoLGAN. — Alien Plants of Co. Dublin. 89 

seedlings was discovered in a gravel pit near Robin Hood, Drimnagh, in 
1916. 

A. Stelleriana, Besser. 

5. The North Bull station for this alien has of late years undergone a 
great change due to the shifting of the sands by westerly gales. The ground 
occupied by the plant in 1902, when it spread over a distance of a mile 
and three-quarters, was a low, fiat shelf of sand a few feet above high tide 
level and on the outside of the line of dunes which marks the eastern 
limit of the Bull. In 19 14 a second line of dunes was found to have 
drifted up on the seaward side of this shelf, running parallel with the 
older line of dunes and forming with it a valley, from 8 to 10 feet deep, 
stretching north and south for more than a third of a mile. A firing of 
the Psamma in 1905 burnt up much of the Artemisia, and the shifting sands 
buried large masses, so that in 1916 only a few plants were visible in this 
sand dune trough or valley. In September, 1917, however, the plant 
appeared in abundance towards the northern end of the dunes, emerging 
from the drifted sands and sending up a single flowering stem. No doubt 
many of the plants now missing from the earlier stations lie buried alive 
and await only a further displacement of the loose sands to display once 
more their broad cushions of silvery foliage. 

Senecio Cineraria, DC. 

8, This handsome Mediterranean alien is spreading rapidly by wind- 
borne seeds southward along the sea cliffs of Killiney Bay, which it invaded 
from a neighbouring garden about forty years ago. Its present extension 
from Sorrento Point opposite Dalkey Island to its southern limit, the old 
stone pier about 100 yards north of the ninth milestone on the railway 
line, is fully one-third of a mile, and as the form of the coast continues 
favourable for about an equal distance southward, the plant will pro- 
bably in course of time double its present range. 

In addition to the cliffs running from Sorrento Point to near Vico 
bathing-place, which for many years have been densely clad with the 
plant, it has now become fully established to the southward in four of 
the steep-walled coves formed by the jutting out of rocky capes. The 
coast line here was carefully examined in February of the present year 
with the following result : the first cove with its adjacent banks just 
beyond the steps of the old bathing-place had about fifty large plants ; 
the second, almost directly below Sunnyside on the Vico Road, 150 ; the 
third, a little further south, sixty ; and the fourth, a little north of the 
stone pier, ninety-five. Many of these were old plants, with numerous 
stout recumbent stems forming masses of silvery-white foliage a yard in 
diameter, and when grouped together on the cliffs conspicuous at half-a- 
mile distance. 

The extension of range here detailed has been almost altogether effected 
within the last ten years ; for in 1907 scarce half a dozen plants were 



90 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

to be seen on the line of cliffs from Vico bathing-place to the present 
southern limit of the species. The extension is not confined to the 
granite sea cliffs and their capping of drift. Twenty-six full-grown 
plants were counted on the rock cuttings of the railway beyond Straw - 
berry Hill in February of this year, and seven others had crossed the 
Vico Road and established themselves on the gorse-clad slopes within the 
grounds of Killiney Castle. 

Last summer near the Vico tunnel, where the rail runs right along the 
top of the steep sea bank, a spark or live coal from a passing engine set 
lire to a thick grove of the oldest plants, so that hundreds were destroyed. 
Nevertheless, vigorous seedlings appeared here in profusion in January 
of the present year, as many as fifty being counted streaming down-hill 
from the burnt stump of one old plant, while an area of g square feet in 
another spot yielded sixty seedlings. 

The hybrid 5. albescens {S. Cineraria x 5. Jacobaea) is frequent through- 
out the range wherever both parent species occur. Two plants were seen 
on Dalkey Island in 1908 and four in 19 15, and in April of this year a 
seedling was found at a height of fully 300 feet on the seaward slope of 
Killiney Hill. As is usual with hybrids, this plant appears in numerous 
forms presenting many varied shades of pubescence, all of duller tone than 
the silvery-white of the Mediterranean parent. 

Sandycove. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

April 23. — Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting.— ^Previous to the election 
of A. MI. Cleland as President F. A. Heron occupied the chair. The 
various reports having been read and adopted, the election of ofhce-bearers 
for 1918-19 was then proceeded with. The election of six new members 
of Committee then followed. Suggestions for places to be visited on the 
summer excursions were placed before the meeting. 



DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

March 14. — The President (J. de W. Hinch) in the chair. There 
were a number of exhibits b}^ members. The President showed Boulder- 
clay and marine shells from the Dublin mountain drift deposits ; R. Ll. 
Praeger, discontinuous variation in Ferns ; N. Colgan, Brazilian 
species of Eriocaulon ( Pipe- wort ) ; W. I). IIaigh, crystalHnc forms of 
calcite ; Prof. A. HENR^■, branch of Finns tubercitlata with numerous 
persistent cones ; A , Williams, copper ore from Beauparc. 



19 1 8. Irish Societies. 91 

May 4. — Excursion to Rush Bulb Farm. — The excursion season 
of the Club opened auspiciously with a visit in typical May weather 
to " Holland, in Ireland," the flourishing bulb farm of Messrs. Hogg and 
Robertson. A party of nineteen members and friends, leaving Dublin by 
the 1.35 p.m. train, arri ed at Rush station about 2 o'clock, and after 
half an hour's walk reached the outskirts of the village and the first section 
of the farm which " rushes red on the sight " as one tops the rise in the 
main road from the hollow of Whitestown. Here the party was received 
by the conductress. Miss Crosbie, manager of the farm, who led the way 
through the quadrangle of densely massed blooms of Darwin and Cottage 
tulips, crimson, yellow, violet, vermilion, pink, mar on, orange, and many 
subtler tints. Each tint was carefully segregated, and every plant fully 
justified its existence : all were in perfect bloom ; there were no '' blind " 
bulbs, as the conductress put it in the forcibly figurative language of 
horticulture. An interesting survival from the Irish vernacular is found 
here in the word CIai]', still applied locally to the furrows which drain and 
mark off one from the other the numerous tulip beds. 

Two other sections of the farm, each like the first a chequered mass of 
bloom and with a soil of almost pure sand, were visited by the party, and 
the fine display of double Anemones was quite as much admired as the 
more formal Tulips. In one of these sections a bed of green tulip blooms 
was pointed out, not as a thing of beauty, but as a triumph of horticultural 
art. 

Refreshed by an excellent tea in Mrs. Dunne's thatched cottage near 
the bulb farm, the party returned to Rush station in time for the 6.12 p.m. 
train to Dublin, each of the nineteen members bearing a huge bouquet of 
tulips and anemones generously presented by Messrs. Hogg and Robertson. 

DIBLIN AIICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

April 10.- -The Club met at Leinster House. The President (N. 
CoLGAN, ]M.R.I.A.) in the chair. 

W. F. GuNN exhibited an example of a reputed -J^-inch objective 
made by Siebert of Berlin. Although in the latter half of last century 
these high power lenses were often used on test objects, they are now 
superseded by the modern achromatic and apo-chromatic immersion 
objectives, which allow much longer working distances, with greater 
penetration and defining power. 

May 8. — The Club met at Leinster House. W. F. Gunn was elected 
President and H. A. Lafferty Vice-president for the session 1918-19. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter and F. J. S. Pollard showed sections through 
the vestigial lateral spiracles and their solidified tracheal connections, 
recently detected in the fourtli -stage larva of the Warble-flies (Hypoderma), 
and previously shown to the Club. These interesting structures have now 
been fully described and figured by the exhibitors {Proc. R. I. Acad., vol. 
xxxiv., B, No. 4, 191 8). 



92 



The Irish Naiuralist. 



June, 



THE MIGRATION OF WOODCOCK. 



SOME NOTES ON AN ARTICLE BY CAPTAIN DOUGLAS. 



BY W. H. WORKMAN, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Captain S. R. Douglas has written a most interesting 
article^ on the migration of Woodcock in Ireland from which 
I propose making some notes for the benefit of those Irish 
ornithologists who may have not had the pleasure of 
reading this valuable paper. 

The experiments were carried out at the instigation of 
Col. W. W. Ashle}/, M.P., at the Palmerston estates, County 
Sligo. The property consists of a strip of country lying 



Donegal Bay 



^CI>//7/s/7murr3y 




wtmm 







A/.Lat. 



o 



^s 




SP^ 






'umcUffBsy 

SC/ILE. ^- MILCS TO ONE INChf 



o* 
CO 



between the Ben Bulben range and the southern shore 
of the Bay of Donegal in County Sligo. In the accompanying 
map an idea of the locality will be obtained, and I would 



^ " Pyoc, Zoo!. Soc. London, 1917, vo^ i., part z 



19 18. Workman. — The Migration of Woodcock. 93 

draw attention to Classiebawn and Castlegal which mark 
the position of the property. 

The estate seems to be a splendid one for Woodcock, 
and it affords excellent sport ; for instance, in January, 
1892, 92 and 98 Woodcock were shot on consecutive days. 
A very interesting point brought out in the article is a com- 
paratively recent regular nesting in these parts of this 
species. It appears quite certain that Woodcock nests 
were considered the greatest rarity before the year 1875. 
Since that date they have become more and more numerous 
and on the particular breeding ground on this property 
Woodcock nests were practically • unknow^n before the year 
1900. 

In this connection from the records of Thompson^ and 
of Moffat^ we may draw a general conclusion that Woodcock 
did not breed in Ireland before 1833, gradually extending 
their range till now it is reported from every county as a 
breeding species. The case of Tollymore Park, Count 3^ 
Down, mentioned by Thompson, is very similar to the rapid 
extension on Col. Ashley's estate. In 1835 one nest was 
found, in 1837 three nests, 1842 nine nests, 1843 twenty-two 
nests, and from 1847 to 1849 not less than thirty nests each 
season. 

One or two interesting facts are reached by Captain 
Douglas's investigations. He states that no definite proof 
of Woodcock raising two broods in the year has been obtained, 
but all the keepers on the estate are of the opinion that this 
occasionally happens. Readers of Thompson will remember 
that the keeper in Tollymore Park, County Down, considered 
that Woodcock nested twice in the season, for he observed 
them on their nests from February to July. It would be 
interesting if Captain Douglas would give this point his 
careful consideration and publish the result of his observa- 
tions in his next paper. 

Ringing experiments were commenced in the year 
19 10, and have been carried on every year since. Since 1912 



2 Natural History of Ireland, vol. iii., page 2^2. 
Irish Naturalist, 1899, page log. 



94 The IrisJi Xatiivalist. June, 

fifty birds were marked each year. On looking over the first 
table in the article the most striking fact is the large number 
of birds which have been recovered on the estate, the actual 
number being 48 out of a total of 55 birds recovered, and of 
these no fewer than 33 were obtained in the immediate 
vicinity of the breeding ground. Of the seven birds obtained 
in other situations 3 were shot within a radius of 10 miles 
in a southerly direction. 

One was shot at Castlederg, County Mayo, which is about 
40 miles to the south-west. One was noticed in the market- 
place of Bilbao having been shot at Morgo, Province of 
Biscay, Spain, within six months of being marked, the distance 
in a direct line being about 800 miles, this is, I think, the most 
interesting of the recoveries, and it shows that there is a 
tendency for the northern-bred birds to migrate south during 
the winter, but I think we must come to the conclusion from 
these observations that Woodcock bred in temperate climates 
like our own do not as a general rule leave them during the 
winter. The birds, which come in great rushes to this 
country, as well as to other European countries, during hard 
winters are, I believe, birds bred in northern Europe, and are 
driven south by the fearful severity of the weather and want 
of food. 

A curious point was brought out with regard to the weight 
of Woodcock. On two occasions when a considerable number 
of ringed birds had been taken and the weight of these nine 
marked birds had been carefully compared with the eight 
unmarked birds obtained on the same day, the average 
weight of the nine ringed birds was 11.97 ozs. and the average 
weight of the eight unringed birds was 11. 3 ozs. Again, 
on January 15th, 1917, eight ringed birds averaged 12.7 
ozs., and 16 unringed birds averaged 12.3 ozs. The following 
day 31 unringed birds gave the average weight of 12. i ozs. 
From this observation we would conclude that the birds bred 
at the estate were much better led than those which came in 
from northern regions, and which had probably been driven 
south by want of food. 

The data collected in this paper points to there being 
three classes of M'oodcock in this part of the west of Ireland, 
namely : — 



i9i8. Workmax. — Tlie Migration of Woodcock. 95 

(i) Woodcock that are hatched out and remain in this 
locality sometimes for years, that is " Resident 
Birds." 

(2) Woodcock that are hatched out in this locality and 

that migrate in a southerly direction. 

(3) Woodcock that arrive from the north during the 

winter months. 
I trust the above notes on Captain Douglas's valuable 
paper may be of interest, and we Irish ornithologists will 
welcome particulars of a further instalment of this Woodcock 
experiment. I may here say that Captain Douglas in a 
letter to me, hopes that others who have shootings both 
in Ireland and other parts of Great Britain would follow 
Col. Ashley's example so that more information could be 
collected regarding the migration habits of Woodcock. 

Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 



NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

Cardamine amara in East Tyrone. 

In addition to Mr. Greer's records for Cardamine amara in East Tyrone 
(/. Nat. December, 1917, vol. xxvi., p. 196) it might be well to note that 
on the excursion of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club to the Torrent River 
valley on 3rd June, 1916, the plant was found near the aqueduct which 
carries the canal over the Torrent River. 

Sylvanus Wear. 
Belfast. 

Arenaria ciliata. 

In the Nyt Magazin for N aturvidenskaberne , 1917, pp. 215-225, Drs. 
Ostenfeld and Dahl discuss the northern segregates of this species, which 
in the British Isles is found only on the Ben Bulben range in Ireland 
and (as A. norvegica of British floras) in Shetland. They divide the 
northern forms into three sub-species : — i. hibernica, {A. ciliata of British 
authors), the Irish plant ; 2. pseudofrigida, occurring in Norway, 
Lapland, arctic Russia, Spitsbergen, and Novaja Semlia ; and norvegica 
{A. norvegica Gunnerus and British authors), found in Norway, Sweden, 
Shetland, Iceland, Greenland, EUesmereland, Labrador ? and Canada, 



96 The Irish Xaturalist. June, 

ZOOLOGY. 

Early Arrival of Spring Migrants. 

The Chiffchaff was observed here on 23rd March, exactly one month 
earher than last year. My previous earliest date is 25th March in 1907. 

On ist April I saw one Swallow — my earliest date for its arrival being 
8th April. 

Nevin H. Foster. 
Hillsborough, Co. Down. 

A Magpie's Flight. 

The Magpie is a very common bird about here. It suffers only a 
small amount of persecution, and seems right able to maintain itself in 
spite of the gamekeeper's gun. Abundance of wood, and a neighbourhood 
of trees is what the Magpie delights in. Its powers of flight depend 
a good deal on its surroundings. Hereabouts it has only opportunity 
to fly short distances. It finds perching facilities everywhere. I was 
surprised therefore during my holiday last September at Tramore (about 
14 miles from here) to see a Magpie performing a very long flight. The 
day was a lovely one, very calm and clear with bright sunshine, and 
hardly a breath of wind. And for a long distance before the bird came 
near I could see it winging its flight in the upper air. Afterwards when 
it passed over where I stood I watched it flying a long distance till it 
became out of sight. It is only a rough computation, but I imagine 
its flight must have exceeded two miles. It is doubtful, and more than 
doubtful, according to my late friend, Mr. Barrington, whether the 
Magpie could attempt a migration, for he says : — " Its non-migratory 
character is sufficiently evinced by the fact that it has never been reported 
from a lightship, nor from such rock stations as the Fastnet, the Tuskar, 
or the Maidens." On a few occasions I have seen large flocks of 
Magpies, but never could ascertain what it was that had brought them 
together. 

W. \V. Flemyng. 

Portlaw. 

Corncrake in Trinity College Park. 

On May 9th, at 10.15 p.m., when walking along Nassau Street, Dublin, 
I distinctly heard a Corncrake in Trinity College Park. In order to make 
quite sure, I went over and listened at the railings, and there is no doubt 
whatever as to the observation, which is surely worthy of record. 

J. Mackay Wilson, 
Currygrane, Co. Longford, 



Irish Naturalist, Vol. XXVII. 




W. Francis de Vismes Kane. 



Tu face page. 97.] 



Jul}-, 1918, The Irish Naturalist. c^j 



WILLIAM FRANCIS DE VISMES KANE. 

By the death of W. F. de Vismes Kane, who passed away 
suddenly at his country house, Drumreaske, near Monaghan, 
on April i8th, at the age of seventy-eight, we lose the last of 
that generation of Irish naturalists to whom most of those 
now working looked for help and guidance in their early 
studies. Unhappily no life-long comrade of our departed 
friend can be asked to place on record the facts and lessons 
of his career, but we had the privilege of association with 
him at different times during the last thirty years, and his 
daughter, Miss Rhoda de Vismes Kane, has kindly furnished 
many interesting details from family records, including an 
unfinished autobiographical sketch of his own. 

Kane was born at Withycombe, near Exmouth, Devon, 
in the year 1840. His father, Joseph Kane, the eldest 
son of Colonel Nathaniel Kane, a Dublin man, had migrated, 
on account of delicacy, to the south-western district of 
England, where he met and married the onl}^ daughter of the 
Comte de Vismes, a French nobleman resident in England, 
whose wife was a sister of Dr. Salt, British consul-general in 
Egypt, well known as a traveller and a collector of Egyptian 
antiquities. Sprung thus from a strain in which Irish, 
French and English lines were blended, Kane passed his 
.early boyhood in a district of great scenic beauty with 
abundant opportunity for natural history studies ; while 
still quite young he began to make collections of shells and 
insects and to accompan}^ the south Devon fishermen when 
they put to sea. 

After his father's death Kane Vv'ent to a small boarding- 
school in London, " where he was badly fed and taught and 
was very miserable." A clergyman's house in Gloucester- 
shire, where a few private pupils were taken, provided a 
more satisfactory educational environment ; thence he 
passed to Cheltenham College, and later took his Universit}^ 
courses in arts and engineering at Trinity College, Dublin, 
his home after his settlement in his father's native country 
being the house of his uncle, John Kane, in Co. Leitrim. 

4. 



gS The Irish Naturalist. July, 

Immediately after completing his college course in 1862, 
Kane married the only daughter of Rev. Charles J. 
Hamilton, vicar of Kimbervvorth, near Rotherham, and 
settled at Drumreaske House, Monaghan, a mansion and 
demesne near the family property which he had inherited. 
Here he took an active part in local government, and twice 
served as High Sheriff of the county. Fishing was his 
favourite recreation, and he became famous in the district 
tlirough his prowess as a salmon-catcher. In 1876 an affec- 
tion of the throat compelled him to seek a milder climate, 
and he spent some time in the south of France, Italy, and 
Switzerland. During this continental residence he visited 
the " Gausses " country of Aquitaine, saw the famous Cro- 
Magnon caves and became interested in the study of pre- 
historic Man. But the most important activity of these 
years in relation to his later scientific work was the collec- 
tion of butterflies, which he carried on systematical!}'^ at 
Hyeres and in Switzerland, thus laying the foundation of 
his wide knowledge of the Lepidoptera and gathering 
material for the useful small and portable collector's book, 
" The Butterflies of Europe," which he published in 1885. 
This book is remarkable for the condensed diagnoses of the 
species and for the excellent illustrations reproduced from 
photographs of perfect and beautifully set specimens by the 
isochromatic process, then recently introduced — " a new 
departure in entomological publication." 

In 1879 Kane returned to Ireland, and for the next 
sixteen years lived partl}^ at Drumreaske and partly at 
Monkstown, on Dublin Bay. He now began to study in 
earnest the Lepidoptera of Ireland, visiting widel}'^ separated 
parts of the country and amassing a large collection which 
illustrated the great range of variation shown b}^ so many 
of the Irish moths. His discoveries of melanic varieties in 
western Irish localities vrere especially noteworthy, and his 
almost black Camptooramma hilincaia from the Blasquets, 
Co. Kerry, described in 1896, caused a sensation among 
entomologists. 

At Monkstown the neighbouring sea attracted him, and 
he acquired a small yacht, the " Linda," in which he made 
frequent voyages around the coast, exploring the cliffs of 



igiS. William Francis de Vismes Kane. 99 

Co. Waterford and the Saltees, and combining in his natural 
history studies, marine zoology, ornithology and ento- 
mology, often landing in the evening after a day's sail to 
" sugar " in the woods. Once when working at flowering 
ivy in an old churchyard with lantern, sheet and net, he 
heard scratching and panting as of some one trying to climb 
the wall, which was high from the field below, but low on 
the inside. He flashed his lantern on the perspiring face of 
a policeman appearing above the coping. " I thought you 
were the devil," groaned the constable, while a comrade 
below ejaculated, " It could be nobody else ! " 

In 1886 Kane joined the dredging expedition on the 
" Flying Falcon " off the south-west of Ireland, organised 
by a band of naturalists, of whom W. S. Green, afterwards 
Inspector of Irish Fisheries, was the leader. The interest 
in marine zoology thus aroused led to a paper on parasitic 
Copepods, published by the Royal Irish Academy in 1891; 
and the stud\' of Entomostraca became later a prominent 
aspect of Kane's activities. His work- on the Irish Lepido- 
ptera had now been carried so far that in 1893 he began in 
the Entomologist the "Catalogue," which maybe regarded as 
his principal work ; it was not concluded until 1901 ; after 
the completion of its serial publication it was issued as a 
separate volume. The old Irish list of Birchall was treated 
by Kane with a critical sympathy, doubtful records being 
withdrawn or corrected, and a sure foundation laid for 
future workers. In 1896 Kane gave up his house at Monks- 
town and spent his time chiefly at Drumreaske, where he 
became busy at fruit and bee culture and landscape- 
gardening, importing many flowering shrubs from Japan 
and elsewhere to beautify his grounds. In 1897 Kane suffered 
heavy bereavement in the loss of his only son, and again in 
1 90 1 when his wife died. 

He had been an original member of the Dublin Natural- 
ists' Field Club in 1886 ; in 1901 he was elected President, 
a compliment which gave him considerable gratification. 
Ti 1902 he contracted a second marriage with the widow 
of Col. Green Wilkinson ; for the next few years he divided 
his time between residence in Drumreaske and Kent and 
foreign travel, ranging as far eastward as Egypt and the 



100 The Irish Naturalist. July, 

Holy Land. In 1904 he made over his great collection of 
Lepidoptera to the National Museum, Dublin, and tlience- 
forth devoted his zoological activities to the study of the 
Crustacea, in which he derived much pleasure through 
association with the late Canon A. M. Norman of Durham, 
and correspondence with Dr. Vejdovsky of Prag and other 
authorities. The latter named in his honour the type 
species [de Vismesi) of Bathyonyx, a new genus of Amphi- 
poda discovered by him along with Niphargiis kochianus 
in Lough Mask. During his last years he renewed his early 
interest in archaeology and published in 1909 and 1917 two 
papers of importance on the " Black Pig's D^/ke " — the 
ancient boundary fortification of Ulster — in the Proceedings 
of the Royal Irish Academy. His love for Irish antiquities 
was deep ; at the International Zoological Congress at 
Cambridge in 1898, we recall how in a friendly argument 
with the late Judge Kane he claimed the chieftainship of 
his clan. 

His vigour and energy to the very end of his long life 
astonished all his friends who knew his age, and up to the 
week of his death he was active in promoting the agricultural 
and other industries of his neighbourhood, as well as in the 
cultivation of his own demesne, his archaeological and 
zoological studies, and the work of the Church of Ireland, 
of which he was a devoted member, serving not only on the 
Council of his diocese but on the General Synod and the Repre- 
sentative Body. To quote his daughter's words : " His 
endless activities gave the impression that he would live 
many years longer. This, however, was not to be ; he saw 
his beloved trees and shrubs in their spring beauty once more, 
and, after only a few hours' illness, passed quietly away." 

The wide interests of his life made him a large circle of 
friends, all of whom learned to appreciate some features at 
least of his many-sided character. He was a delightful 
companion in natural history field-work, knowing much 
about many subjects and ready to convey information to 
all who consulted him ; in a day's heavy hill-tramping he 
could outsta}^ many younger men. When dealing with the 
groups that he studied most closel}^ — the Lepidoptera and 
small Crustacea — he never became a narrow specialist ; the 



igiS, William Francis de Vismes Kane. loi 

broad aspects of biology appealed to him more strongly 
than the minute varietal and sub-specific distinctions which 
modern S37stematists love, and indeed his naturally con- 
servative mind was somewhat intolerant of the growing 
elaboration in recent years of zoological, and especially 
entomological nomenclature. Had he restricted his studies 
more closely to one of the lines that attracted him he might 
have w^on for himself a more prominent name in the world 
of science. But we who treasure his memory realise that 
in the life of his country he filled to admiration the part 
for which he was eminently fittv-^d — an Irish gentleman and 
a true naturalist. 

Geo. H. Carpenter. 



LIST OF THE MOKE IMPOKTAXT WRITINGS OF 
W. F. DE VISMES KANE, M.A., M.R.I. A. 

Compiled by J. N. Halbert, M.R.I. A. 

Many of the short notes on Irish Lepidoptera contributed by Mr. 
Kane to the Entomologist and the Entomologists' Record and Journal of 
Variation are not included in this bibliography; nor are his short notes in 
the pages of the Irish Naturalist, which are indexed in the last number of 
volume XXV. With few exceptions, the records contained therein were 
incorporated in his valuable " Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland." 
The first instalment of the " Catalogue " appeared in the Entomologist in 
1882. On its completion in igoi it was reprinted as a separate volume b>- 
West, Newman & Co. 

Crustacea. 

1892. On a New Species of Lernaeopoda from the West Coast of Ireland. 
Proc. R. I. Acad. (3), vol. ii., p. 203. 

1900. Entomostraca from Lough Ree. Irish Nat., vol. ix., p. 12. 

1901. Notes on Irish Cladocera. Irish Nat., vol. x., p. 112. 

1903. A Contribution to the Knowledge of Irish Fresh-water Ento- 
mostraca. Cladocera. Irish Nat., vol. xii., p. 210. 

1903. Rare blind Amphipod from Lough Mask. Irish Nat., vol. xii., p. 273. 

1904. Further captures of Mysis relicta in Ireland. Irish Nat., vol. xiii., 
p. 107. 

1907. Additional Records of F'resh-water Entomcstraca in Ireland. Irish 
Nat., vol. xvi., p. 305. 



102 Til/" Irish Na/uralisf. July, 

Insecta. 

1882. Report on the Entomology of certain districts in I Ister. Pyoc. 
R. I. Acad. (2), vol. iii., p. 784. 

1S82. Causes of Abundance or otherwise of Lcpidoptera. Entomologist, 
vol. XV., p. 244. 

1883. Remarks upon certain Causes of Scarcity of Lepidoptera. Ento- 
mologist, vol. xvi., p. 52. 

1884. Variation of European Lepidoptera. Entomologist, vol. xvii., p. 97. 

1884. Influence of Meteorological Conditions upon Lepidoptera. Ento- 
mologist, vol. xvii., p. 25. 

18S4. Report on Irish Lepidoptera. Proc. R. T. Acad. (2), vol. iv., p. 105. 
1886. Report on Researches on the Macrolepidoptera at Killarney, &c. 
Proc. R. I. Acad., (2), vol. iv., p. 588. 

1885. A Handbook of European Butterflies. INIacmillan <S: Co., f.ondon. 

1885. Scientific Nomenclature and Dr. Lang's " European Butterflies." 

Entomologist, vol. xviii., p. 45. 

1886. The Tephrosia Discussion. Entomologist, vol. xix., p. 2oy. 

1886. Some Notes on tlie Comparative Study of British and Continental 
Rhopalocera. Entom. Month. Mag., vol. xxiii., p. 244. 

1891. The generic position of Dianthoecia Barrettii. Entom. Record, 
vol. i., p. 260. 

1893-01. A Catalogiie of the Lepidoptera of Ireland. Entomologist, vols. 
xxvi.-xxxiv. Issued separately in 1901 (West, Newman cS: Co.). 

1893. The Melanism Controversy. Entomologist, vol. xxvi., p. 307. 

1893. Irish Entomology. Irish Nat., vol. ii., p. 32. 

1894. The New Entomology. Entomologist, vol. xxvi., p. 185. 

1895. The Lepidoptera of the Galway Excursion. Irish Nat., vol. iv., p. 
263. 

1895. On the Variation of Melitaca aurinia, Rott. Entom. Record, 
vol. vii., p. 230. 

1895. The Resting Habit of Insects as exhibited in tJic Plienumcna 
of Hibernation and Aestivation. Entom. Record, vol. vii., p. 243. 

1896. Observations on the Development of Melanism in Camptcgramma 

bilineata. Irish Nat., vol. \-., p. 74. (Sec also vol. vi., p. 44). 

1897. Leucania unipuncta, Haw\, in Co. Cork. Irish Nat., vol. \i., ]). 104. 

1898. Lepidoptera of Achill. Irish Nat., vol. \'n., p. i]j. 

1900. iNIr. Donovan's captures in Co. Cork. Entomologist , vol. xxxiii., p. 

197. 
1907. Lepidoptera tjf Lamba}'. Irish Nat., vol. xvi., p. -j_}. 



Vertebrates. 

1892. Sharks in Irish Waters. Eield, vol. Ixxx., p. 917. 

1893. Is the Frog a native of Ireland ? Irish Nat., vol. ii., p. 95. 

1893. The Eagle Owl {Bubo maximus) in Ireland, and former .scarcity of 
the Magpie {Pica nistica). Irish Nat., vol. ii., p. 113. 



igiS. William Francis de Vismes Kane. 103 

1894. The Reddish-grey Bat {Vesperiilio Natterevii Kuhl) in Co. Galway. 

Irish Nat., vol. iii., p. 116. 
1896. Pine Martens recently taken in Ireland. Irish Nat., vol. v., p. 28. 
1905. Wild Cats formerly indigenous in Ireland. Irish Nat., vol. xiv., 

p. 165. 

1916. The Crossbill and its Diet. Irish Nat., vol. xxv., p. 53. 

Archaeology. 

1870. Account of Two Antiquities presented to the Academy. Proc. R. I. 

Acad., vol. XV., p. 2. 
1885. Notes on Crannoges in Co. Leitrim. Roy. Hist, and Arch. Soc. 

Ireland, vol. xvii., p. 407. 
191 1. The Black Pig's Dyke: The Ancient Boundary Fortification of 

Uladh. Proc. R. I. Acad.., vol. xxvii., C. p. 301. 
1915. The Dun of Drumsna. Proc. R. I. Acad., vol. xxxii., C. p. 324. 

1917. Additional Researches on the Black Pig's Dyke. Proc. R. I. Acad., 
vol. xxxiii. C. pp. 539. 

General. 

902. Recent progress in Irish Natural Histor}-. Presidential Address. 
Irish Nat., vol. xi., p. ^^. 



BOTANICAL NOTES FROM INISTIOGE. 

BY K. LLOYD PRAEGER. 

I. Water-borne Flora of Pollard Willows. 

Just below the bridge at Inistioge, and about a mile below 
the spot where the River Nore ceases to be affected by the 
tide, the stream is fringed with pollard willows. The rise 
and fall of tide here averages about three feet, and while 
the tops of the willow stumps are about six or more above 
the water when the tide is down, a spring tide, or a 
combination of flood and tide, submerges them occasioraUy 
in autumn and winter, and seeds and mud are deposited 
among the branches. Mosses help to hx these materials, 
and a varied epiphytic flora results. That water rather 
than wind is the transporting agent is clear from the 
subjoined list, in which will be found many plants that are 
not light-seeded. The flora of the willow-tops is generally 



104 '^^^ Irish Naturalist. July, 

cut off from that of the ground by several feet of bare trunk. 
An examination of a dozen willows ^ave the following 
list ; — Ranunculus acris, R. repcns, R. I'icaria, Cciniamine 
pralcnsis, (■. sylvaiica, Acer Psciuio-plalajuis, Vicia scpiuni, 
Trijoliuni rcpois, Spiraea Ulniaria, Rosa canina, Sanicula 
curopaca, Chaerophyllun sylveslrc, Angelica sylveslris, 
Oenanlhc crocaia, Hcracleiun Splwndyliiun, Hedera Helix, 
Caliuni saxalile, Lonicera Periclymenum, Valeriana sanibiici- 
folia, Achillea MillefoUiun, Senecio aqualicus, raraxacnrn 
officinale, CampanvJa Trac/ieliiini, Veronica Chaniaedrys, 
Origanuni vulgar e, Plantago lanceola'a, Fagus sylvaiica, 
Carex sylvaiica, Fesfiica ovina, Brachy podium sylvalicum, 
Polyp odi urn vulga re . 



2. Tidal Influence on Vegetation. 

\\'here the rise and fall caused b}' the tide is four or live 
feet, Callha f^aluslris still abounds near the lower limit, and 
may be seen at high tide flowering abundantly under a 
yard of water. The flowers appear uninjured by this 
semi-diurnal drowning, and the seed follicles were swelling. 
Several of the plants which root on the bottom also appeared 
to be not discommoded by these rapid fluctuations of level 
— for instance, Nnphar luleimi and Potamogelon lucens. 
Saline influence is first observable about two miles below 
the " top of the tide," where the river is already very 
muddy and estuarine, and the rise and fall almost that of 
the full amplitude of the tide. Here Scirpits inarilimtis 
and S. Tahernaemontani fringing the mud-banks are the 
first halophile species to appear, growing among Caltha 
paluslris, Runiex crispus, Alisma Planlago, and Calliirichc sp. 
But the foreshore here exhibits no trace of marine influence 
as regards either its flora or its fauna. 



3. Floristic Notes. 

In connection with these notes the following broad 
features of the area should be borne in mind. The River 
Nore, which, as far south as Thomastown (six miles N.W. 



i9i8. Praeger. — Botanical Notes front Inistioge, 105 

of Inistioge) flows through a hniestone valley with a rich 
calcicole flora, at that point })asses into Old Red Sandstone 
and then Silurian rocks, which at Inistioge are succeeded 
b}^ niica schist with granite on the higher grounds : through 
these rocks the ri\'er lias cut a beautiful richly wooded 
gorge. 

Ranunculus Lingua L. — By the Nore a mile below Inistioge. 

Sisymbrium Thalianum j. Cray. — About Inistioge. 

Linum angustifolium Huds. — Gravel pit below Inistioge. 

Vicia angustifolia Roth. — In several stations. 

Prunus Padus L. — Wood near Inistioge. New to Co. Kilkenny. 

Sedum spp. — No native species of Seduni was seen in the district, but 
naturalized species eire unusually abundant ; 5. album occurs in 
many places, and vS". rupestrc, S. sexangulare and 5. spuriunt were 
also seen growing " wild." 

Centranthus ruber DC. — Abundant, and almost entirely in the hand.some 
crimson form. In gravel-pits as well as on rocks and walls. 

Primula officinalis J acq. — Unusually abundant for a district where 
limestone is absent. 

* Polygonum Bistorta L. — By the river below Inistioge bridge. New to 
Co. Kilkenny. 

Colchicum autumnale L. — So far as my observations go, this local plant 
has a very defined habitat. It haunts flat damp meadows by the 
river, but above the limits of floods. The wetter meadows, with 
Caltha and Iris, are devoid of it, as are the drier pastures which rise 
from the river-flat. 

Polypodium vulgare L. — The prevailing plant is the broad-leaved form 
(up to 8 inches across the frond) Avith slightly serrated lobes which 
one rather associates with limestone areas. 

Lastrea spinulosa Presl. — Sparingly on Mount Alto, i^ miles south of 
Inistioge, at 700 feet elevation. Second Kilkenny record. 

Osmunda regalis L. — Many fine plants by a stream on Brandon Hill. 
I had previously (in 1898) found a few plants on another part of 
this mountain. 

National Library, Dublin. 



io6 The Irish Naturalist. July, 

SOME MORE IRISH ICHNEUMONIDAE AND 

BRACONIDAE. 

BY REV. \V. F. JOHNSON, M.A., F.E.S., M.R.I. A. 

Last year was not particukirly good for Ichneumon Flies 
owing to the broken weather, especially in tlie autumn, for 
these insects are lovers of sunshine, and in dull or wet 
weather they are not to be seen. My holiday in Donegal 
was on this account not nearly as productive as usual. 
I broke new ground at Portnoo, so have a lot of common 
species to record from thence. 1 found it a very promising 
locality. It is situated on the south side of Gweebarra 
Bay about nine miles from (Uenties, which is the nearest 
railway station. 

A good many of the species mentioned in the following 
list have not, as far as 1 kno\\', been previously recorded 
from Ireland, but as our knowledge of these insects in Ire- 
land is too imperfect to admit of an attempt at an Irish 
List, it is not necessary to specify them. 1 do, liowever, 
bring forward an addition to the Britannic List in Spilo- 
cryptus mansitetor Tschek, but with some doubt, as to its 
determination, I have had to depend on Dr. O. 
Schmiedknecht's revision of the Cryptinae in the Ento- 
mologischen Nadirichten for 1890, in which there is no 
detailed description. 

Some of these insects i)ass tlie winter in the perfect state 
like the Was])s, Humble Bees, and certain Butterflies. 
Mr. Foster's specinu>n of Ichneumon sttspiciosiis was in this 
condition, and ni}' specimen of /. cxtensorius was probably 
just awakened out of its long sleep, as it was jumping about 
on llie road in a most absurd manner, and 1 caught it with 
m\' ]iand. Tlie variety of Glypta genalis wiiich I took here 
is a very handsome creature, the red colour showing up 
brilliantly against the dv.v\) black of the rest ol the body. 
I was very pleased to meei witli Lissonoia Intsalis at Cool- 
more and Portnoo, and 1 dai"e say it will prove to be as 
common as its close ally /.. sup/iurijcra. 

As the summer draws on, ichneumon Flies become more 
plentiful, f(jr then their victims are ready for them. It 



tgi8. Johnson — Irish Ichneiimonidae and Braconidae. 107 

must be remembered that these creatm'es Hve on other 
insects, attacking them either in the larval or pupal stage, 
and when their host should emerge they emerge instead, 
and prepare for a fresh campaign. Thus, the little Ichneu- 
mons \\'hich attack the White Cabbage Butterfly are now 
preparing to emerge so as to be ready to assail the larvae as 
soon as they appear, and so assist the grower of cabbages, 
who would be very badl}' off indeed without the help of 
these tiny allies. 

The Coolmore specimens were taken in August, unless 
otherwise stated, and those at Portnoo in September. 

I have once more to thank Mr. Claude Morley, f.e.s., 
for most kind assistance with several critical species. He 
is always most ready and generous in placing his great 
knowledge at my disposal. 

ICHNEUMONIDAE. 

ICHNEUMON IN A E. 

Cratichneumon fabricator F. — Coolmore, in August, on roadside among 
sallows. A variety of the male, with the Lead entirely black. 

C. pallidifrons Gr. — Antrim, in August ; taken by J. J. F.-X. King. 

Melanichneumon monastagon Cir. — Portnoo, among sallows, rare. 

Barichneumon anator Fab. — Newcastle, Co. Down, in June ; taken by 
J. J. F. X. King. 

B. vacillatorius Gr. — Coolmore, in a window, a male. 

B. albicinctus Gr. — Portnoo, among sallows, and at flowers of Wild Carrot ; 
males. 

Ichneumon xanthorius Forsier \;>i'. flavoniger Cr. Poilnoo, ani<»iig 

heatlier. 
I. sarcitorius L. — Portiujo, among sallows. 
I. latrator Fab., var. means Gr. — Coolmore, in September, among herbage 

in a lane ; a variety with the fourth segment entirely red and the 

sixth white marked. 
I. melanotis Ulgr. — Portnoo, at Wild Carrc^t, uncommon. 
I. suspiciosus Wcsm. — Drumagulhon, near Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone. 

Taken by Mr. N. H. Foster under a stone in a field on March J^th ; 

a female in hybernation. 
I. uxtensorius L.— Portnoo, at flowers. I'. >> 11 1 /pass, I took a small form 

of the female of this species running on the road cm April .:nd. 
I, submarginatus Gr. — Coolmore, among sallows, a male. 
I. cessator -Mull. — Portnoo, among sallows. 
Chasmias motatorius Fab. "] 

Platylabus pedatorius l-ab. ^Poyntzpass, in helds, males, m July. 
Phaeogenes argutus Wesm. J 



io8 The Irish Xaturalist. Jul^^ 

Phaeogenes ophthalmicus Wcsm. — Poitnoo, ou sandhills. 
P. rusticatus Wcsm. — Poitnoo, among sallows. 

CRYPTINAE. 

MicrocryptuS) perspicillalor Gr. — Poitnoo, at flowers. 

M. subguttatus (ir.— Coolmorc, a mal(\ among sallows. 

M. improbus (".r.— Coolmorc and riutiiDo, among sallows. 

M. graminicola Gr. — Coolmorc, in Imusi" ; Portnoo, at flowers. 

M. nigrocinctus Gr. — Coolmorc, among sallows. 

M. sperator M'lH. — Portnoo, on sandhills. 

Phygadeuon ovatus Gr. — Poyntzpass, in a window, in June, a female. 

P. inflatus Thorns. — Poyntzpass, in fields, in August. 

Pezomachus tristis Fab. — Coolmorc, among sallows, a female. 

Atractodes croceicornis Hal. -Portnoo, at flowers, a female. ^Haliday 

records it as rare in Ireland, and Alorlcy'-^ records one specimen from 

Suflolk. 
Exolytus laevigatUS Gr. — Coolmorc, .inioiig sallows. 
Pycnocryptus peregrinator L., var. analis Gr. — A male, Newcastle, Co. 

Down, in August, taken by J. J. F. X. King. 
Spilocryptus mansuetor Tschek. — Poyntzpass, in my garden, in June, a 

female. New to the British List. 
S. abbre viator ¥. — ^ Portnoo, among herbage on roadside, a female. 
S. nubeculatus Gr. — Newcastle, Co. Down, in July; taken by J. J. F. X. 

King, a female, rare. 
Cry plus viduatorius Fab. — Newcastle, Co. Down, in August ; taken by 

J. J. F.-X. King. 
C. miniator Gr. — Coolmorc, among sallows. 

PIMPLINAE. 

Pimpla brevicornis Gr. — Portnoo, among herbage. 

P. calobata (ir.- -Portnoo, at flowers of Wild Carrot. 

P. arctica Zett. — Portnoo, r.t Wild Carrot. 

P. turionella L. \,, ^ 
„ ,^ ^, f Portnoo. 

P. alternans Grav. J 

P. ovivora Boh. — Poyntzpass, in June, a female, which 1 took on the 
wing at a plant of Black Bryony, which grows at the front on my 
house. 

Glypta fronticornis Gr. — Coolmorc, among sallows. 

G. genalis M«">11. — Poyntzpass, in July, in my lields ; a variety with the 
second segment of tlie abdomen in the female and the second, third 
and fourth segments in the male red or partly red. Mr. Morley tells 
me he has not met with this form before. Tiic type has the abdomen 
entirely black. 

Lissonota bellator Gr. — Portnoo. 

L. variipes Desv. — Coolmorc, in vSeptember, a specimen with the arcolct 
pentagonal ; Portnoo. 



J . Ann. Nal. Hist., ia39, P- "Q- ^- " British Ichneumons," vol. ii., p. 253. 



igiS. JoHNSOX — Irish Ichfieitmonidae and Braconidae. 109 

Lissonota cylindrator Vill. '^Portnoo; of the latter I took a female 
L. sulphurifera Or. / with the coxae red. 

L. basalis Brischke. — Coolmorc, Portnoo. 



TRYPHONINAE. 

Homocidus caudatus Thoms. 

Mesoleius semicaligatus Or. 1 

M. bicolor Crr. | 

M. nigricollis Or. |^ Portnoo at Wild Cn rrot. 

Dyspetes praerogator T.. 

Tryphon elongator i^ab. 

Perispudius sulphuratus Gr. 

Eiiryproctus atomator Miill. — Coolmore, at Wild Carrot. 

Prionopoda glabra Bridg. — ^Poyntzpass, in July, in field. 

Polyblas'us rivalis Hlgr. — -Portnoo, at sallows. 

P. variitarsus Or. — Antrim, in August, taken by J. J. F. X. King. 

OPHIONINA E. 

Campoplex terebrator l*<>!"ster. — Newcastle, Co. Down, in July ; taken by 

j . j . F. X. King. 
Sagaritis postica Bridg. — Poyntzpass, in ]\Iay, in a lane, at flowers of Hedge 

Parsley. 

Limnerium rufifemur Thorns. 1 

Pyracmon obscuripes Hlgr. J^ Poynlzpass, July, in fields. 

Nemeritis sordida Gr. J 

Meloboris litoralis Hlgr. — Coolmore, in September, at Wild Carrot. 
Ophion luteus L. — Newcastle, Co. Down, laken in July, by J. J. F. X. 
King. 

BRACONIDAE. 

Rhogas irregularis Wesm. — Poyntzpass, in July, in field. 

Chelonus inanitus Linn. — Athlone, in July, taken by J. J. F. X. King. 

Apanteles spurius Wesm. — Newcastle, Co. Down, reared from larvae of 
/ vranieis cardiii. 

A. falcatus Nees. — Poyntzpass, in field, at Hogweed, in July and August. 
Coolmore, at Dauciis Carota, on roadside. I erroneously recorded this 
as Euhadizon flavipes H 1. in the frisli Xntnyalist, vol. xxiv., 1915, 

Microgaster globatus Nees. — Poyntzpa.ss, in July, in field. 
Meteorus lividus kuthe. — Portnoo, on heather. 
M. pulchricornis Wesm.-- -Portnoo, among herbage on roadside. 
M. melanostictus Capron. — Poyntzpass, in June, among herbage. 
M. punctriventris Kuthe. — Coolmore, on sandhills, in September. 
Macrocentrus marginator Nees. — Poyntzpass, in July, in field. 
Diospilus capito Xees. — Coolmore, in September, in window. 

Poyntzpass, Co. Armagh. 



no The Irish NaturaliU. July, 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gifts include a Grivet Monkey from Lt. H. P. Murphy, a Blue 
fronted Amazon from Mrs. Abdy, and a Grey-lag Goose from Mrs- 
Fitzgerald. A rare Guenon Monkey {Cercopithecus neglectus) has been 
received on deposit ; Chacma and Yellow Baboons and two Vervet 
Monkeys have been purchased for the collection. Two male Lion-cubs 
(parents " Finn " and " Hassanatu ") were born on May 13th, but did 
not survive. Egyptian and Canadian Geese have been hatched in the 
Gardens. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

Excursion to Saintfield. — The first excursion of the summer season 
was held to Saintfield on May 18 under the leadership of S. A. Bennett. 
The demesne of Saintfield House was visited and also " Rowallane " 
where the rock garden — just in its prime — was greatly admired. Tea 
was served here, after which the usual business meeting was held, six 
new members being elected. 



NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

A New Station for Lathraea squamaria in Co. Dublin. 

While taking a stroll early in May last I came across a plant of the 
above species beside the small stream which falls into the right bank of 
the Dodder a short distance above Bohernabreena bridge. It appears 
to be new to District 7 of Mr. Colgan's Flora of Co. Dublin. 

J. P. Brunker. 
Kathgar. 

Draba muralis in Co. Down. 

The only published record for Draba muralis in Co. Down in " Walls at 
Rogers' Nursery at Newry, '96, Lett ! " A few weeks ago I found a small 
colony of this plant growing on wall by side of level crossing about a quarter 
of a mile north of Hillsborough railway station. Further search revealed 
it in numerous other places in the neighbourhood. In Aglisgrove Nursery 
it is growing literally in thousands, and it may well be that it has been 
there introduced and from thence spread. In the nursery it is growing 
mainly in the beds and on the walks, and it is also growing along the 
adjoining roadside. Jt is common in the Downshire gardens, about a mile 
distant from the nursery. There is a small colony in my own garden (where 



i9i8. Notes. Ill 

I believe it did not exist last year), and it may be noted that in this case 
the Draba is growing alongside a bed of cnrleys, the plants of which came 
from Aglesgrove Nursery last August. 

Xfa'IN J I. Foster. 
Hillsborough, Co. Down. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Bird Life at Curryg^rane, Co. Lonj>ford. 

The following records of the dates on wliicli some of our < ommon 
migratory birds were first seen or heard during a series of twenty-nine 
years (1889-1917) may be of interest to ornithologists : — 

Swallow (first seen)— 1889, Apr. 19 ; 1890, Apr. 19 ; 1891, Apr. 19 ; 

1892, Apr. 12 ; 1893, Apr. 5 ; 1894, Apr. 15 ; 1893, Apr. 12 ; 1896, Apr. 
16 ; 1897, Apr. 19 ; 1898, Apr. 8 ; 1899, Apr. 24 ; 1900, Apr. 15 ; 1901, 
Apr. 14 ; 1902, Apr. 9 ; 1903, Apr. 23 ; 1904, Apr., 14 ; 1905, Apr. 12 ; 
190G, Apr. 6 ; 1907, Apr. 22 ; 1908, Apr. 30 ; 1909, Apr. 8 ; 1910, Apr. 16 ; 
1911, Apr. 18; 1912, Apr. 11; 1913, Apr. 21; 1914, Apr. 18; 1913, 
Apr. 22 ; 1916, Apr. 22 ; 19 17, Apr. 23. 

(^'CKoo (first heard) : — 1890, Apr. 22 ; " 1891, Apr. 24 ; 1892, May i ; 

1893, Apr. 22; 1894, Apr. tS ; 1895, Apr. 23; 1896, Apr. 22; 1897, 
Apr. 24 ; 1898, Apr. 21 ; 1899, Apr. 21 ; 1900, Apr. 25 ; 1901, Apr. 25 ; 
1902, Apr. 21; 1903, Apr. 2^; 1904, Apr. 29; 1903, Apr. 29; 1906, 
May I ; 1907, May 3 ; 1908, Apr. 30 ; 1909, Apr. 24 ; 1910, Apr. 30 ; 
19TI, Apr. 28; 1912, Apr. 25; 1913, Apr. 21; 1914, Apr. 19; 1915, 
Apr. 29; 19 1 6, Apr. 29; 1917, May i. 

Corncrake (first heard): — 1890, Apr. 29; 1891, Apr. 30; 1892, 
May 5 ; 1893, Apr. 19 ; 1893, Apr. 2^ ; 1897, Apr. 26 ; 1899, Apr. 2^ ; 
1900, May 3 ; 1901, Apr. 21 ; 1904, Apr. 28 ; 1903, Apr. 24 ; 1907, Apr. 
2^ ; 1908, May i ; 1909, Apr. 2^ ; 191 1, May 3 ; 1912, Apr. 22 ; 1914; 
May 3 ; 1913, Apr. 26; 1916, Apr. 28; 1917, May i. 

CuiFFCfiAFF (first heard): — 1893, Mar. 22 ; 1894, Mar. 21; 1895, 
Apr. 3; 1896, Mar. 22; 1897, Apr. 4; i8g8, Apr. 10 ; 1899, Apr. 16; 

1900, Apr. 17 ; 1901, Apr. 13 ; 1902, Apr. 4 ; 1903, Apr. 3 ; 1904, Apr. 14 ; 
1905, Mar. 22 ; 1906, Apr. 3 ; 1907, Mar. 28 ; 1908, Apr. 7 ; 1909, Apr. 6 ; 
1911, Apr. 11; 1912, Mar. 23; 1913, Mar. 23; 1914, Apr. i ; 1913, 
Apr. 3; 1916, Apr. 9; 1917, Apr. 22. 

Spotted Flycatcher (first seen) : — 1892, May 11 ; 1912, J^ay 
13 ; 1913, May 7. 

Wtllow-Wren (first heard) : — 1894, Apr. 7 ; 1893, Apr. 12 ; 1896; 
Apr. 3; 1897, Apr. 10; 1898, Apr. 11 ; 1899, Apr. 16; 1900, Apr. 24' 

1901, Apr. 17; 1902, Apr. 12; 1903, Apr. 19; 1904, Apr. 14; 1903, 
Apr. 14; 1906, Apr. 8; 1907, Apr. 13; 1908, Apr. 17; 1909, Apr. 10; 
1911, Apr. 17; 1912, Apr. 16; 1913, Apr. 7 ; 1914, Apr. 11; 1915, Apr. 
19; 1916, Apr. 20; 1917, Apr. 30. 

J. Mack ay Wilson. 
Currygrane, Co. Longford. 



TI2 



The Irish Naturalist. 



July, 1918. 



Green Sandpiper in Co. Westmeath. 

In the Irish Naturalist of January last [supra, p. 14) Mrs. I^ait Ken- 
recorded an example of Toianus ochropus from King's County. It may 
be interesting to note that nearly a month later a specimen was secured 
near Killucan by a party whilst snipe shooting. This, killed on December 
14, 19 1 7, I am told was an adult male. It is being preserved by Williams, 
Dublin. As far as I can gather no other occurrences have been reported 
from Co. Westmeath within recent years. 



Fred. S. Beveridge, 
Lt. 3rd Bn. Royal Scots. 



The Barracks, MuUingar. 



Snow Geese at Mutton Island, Co. Galway. 

Mr. John Glanville, of Mutton Island lighthouse informs me that on 
December 5th, 191 7, he observed 12 " White Geese " flying eastwards ; 
and in subsequent letters about the birds he told me that they were 
slightly larger than Brent Geese and smaller than Barnacle Geese, and 
were pure white, except that at least one had black on the wing. 
The birds were under observation through a telescope for about ten 
minutes. There seems to be no doubt that they were Snow Geese 
[Anser hyperhoreus hyperboreus). 



William Ruttledge. 



Hollymount, Co. Mayo. 



Incubation Period of Birds. 

I am very anxious to collect information as to the incubation period 
of tliosc British Birds which nest witli us, but so far, though 1 have 
consulted most available works, I have not seen any mention of this 
feature, cxccyit in one, which casually records that the incubation period 
of wild birds {i.e., exclusive of the domestic fowl and duck) varies iwnw 
ten days to as many weeks. 1 am myself studying to try to obtain 
the exact periods, but at present am unable to devote all the time I 
should like to observations, and therefore I would be very pleased if 
any reader wlio lias already determined this question would (with your 
permission) inform me through the pages f)f this Magazine, of tlie results 
they have arrived at. I think that information of this kind would be 
of special value to those who ar(> marking birds for tlu> " P>ritish Birds " 
Scheme. 

llKrF.N M. K'ait K'I'.kr, 

lui field. Co. Meath. 



Aug.-Sapt., 1918, The Irish Naturalist. 113 



REAPPEARANCE OF LATHYRUS MARITIMUS 

IN KERRY. 

BY REGINALD W. SCULLY, F.L.S. 

The great rarity of the Sea Pea in Ireland and its 
disappearance from its only known station, the Castlemaine 
sand-hills of Kerry, for a period of almost three quarters 
of a century are enough to warrant more than a bald record 
of its reappearance there in the present year. 

On July 28 last I was very agreeably surprised to receive 

frr»TTJ m^7 fripnr! ATr«i Tpnnpr an arrninnli'^hpri Kprrv 



The Editors and Publishers regret the unavoidable 
suspension of this Magazine due to a dispute in the Dublin 
Printing Trade. It is purposed to issue another double 
number (for October-November) as early as possible to be 
followed by the December number with Index, completing 
the Volume. 



cliffs of rocks, and among pebbles where no earth is seen 
to give them nourishment, for the roots run to a great 
depth, to find the earth. In tim^es of scarcity of provisions 
they have afforded great relief to the people of England, 
who lived near the sea coast, and who having never observed 
it, till necessity sent them to its stores, they then thought 
it was sent by miracle for their support." 

The second notice occurs in a " Catalogue of Rare 
Plants found in Ireland," published in 1806 by that 
distinguished Irish botanist, James Townsend Macka}'. 
He there states " I found this [Lathy rus maritinius on the 
sandhills, bay of Castlemain in August, 1804." Mr. William 
Andrews appears to have been the next to gather the 



TT2 



The Irish Naturalist, 



July, 1918. 



Green Sandpiper in Co. Westmeath. 

In the Irish Naturalist of January last {supra, p. 14) Mrs. Rait Ken- 
recorded an example of Totanus ochropns from King's County. It may 
be interesting to note that nearly a month later a specimen was secured 
near Killucan by a party whilst snipe shooting. This, killed on December 
14, 19 1 7, I am told was an adult male. It is being preserved by Williams. 
Dublin. As far as I can gather no other occurrences have been reported 
from Co. Westmeath within recent years. 



Fred. S. Beveridge, 
Lt. 3rd Bn. Royal Scots. 



The Barracks, IMullingar. 



I am very aiixiuus hj uuiicl,i nm/i mciciwn cx.t ^.yy vx.^^ ^..^v.^^...^ — .. j^ 

of those British Birds which nest with us, but so far, though I have 
consulted most available works, I have not seen any mention of this 
feature, except in one, which casually records that the incubation period 
of wild birds {i.e., exclusive of the domestic fowl and duck) varies from 
ten days to as many weeks. 1 am myself studying to try to obtain 
the exact periods, but at present am unable to devote all the time I 
should like to observations, and therefore I would be very pleased if 
any reader who has already determined this question would (with your 
permission) inform me through the pages of this Magazine, of the results 
they have arrived at. I think that information of this kind would be 
<jf special value to those who are marking birds for the " J^ritish Birds " 
Scheme. 

HF.ri'.N .\i. I\.MT Kr.KR. 
Enfield, Co. Mcath. 



Aug.-Sspt., 1918, The Irish Naturalist. 113 



REAPPEARANCE OF LATHYRUS MARITIMUS 

IN KERRY. 

BY REGINALD W. SCULLY, F.L.S. 

The great rarity of the Sea Pea in Ireland and its 
disappearance from its only known station, the Castlemaine 
sand-hills of Kerry, for a period of almost three quarters 
of a centiirv are enough to warrant more than a bald record 
of its reappearance there in the present year. 

On July 28 last I was very agreeably surprised to receive 
from my friend, Mrs. Jenner, an accomplished Kerry 
botanist, fresh specimens of this long lost plant which had 
just been sent her by the lucky finder, Miss Elsie Milliard, 
who had discovered it growing in considerable quantity in 
its old station. Two days later I w^as informed by Mr. 
R. LI. Praeger that he too had received specimens, in his 
case direct from the finder, and it is at his request that I 
have put together the following notes on Lathyrus maritimus 
in Ireland. 

The first Irish record appears in Dr. Smith's " History of 
Kerry," published in 1756, where, on p. 380, he writes : — 
" Pisum maritimum Ger. — English sea peas. They grow 
annually on the S. point of Inch Island in the Bay of 
Castlemain in considerable quantities ; they are also found 
on the English sea coasts in like manner, in barren naked 
cliffs of rocks, and among pebbles where no earth is seen 
to give them nourishment, for the roots run to a great 
depth, to find the earth. In tim^es of scarcity of provisions 
they have aftorded great relief to the people of England, 
who lived near the sea coast, and who having never observed 
it, till necessity sent them to its stores, they then thought 
it was sent by miracle for their support." 

The second notice occurs in a " Catalogue of Rare 
Plants found in Ireland," published in 1806 by that 
■ distinguished Irish botanist, James Townsend Mackay. 
He there states " I found this [Lathyrus maritifrius on the 
sandhills, bay of Castlemain in August, 1804." Mr. William 
Andrews appears to have been the next to gather the 

A. 



11^ The Irish Naturalist. Aug.-Sept., 

plant, as there is a specimen bearing his name in the 
HerV)arium of Mr. xVrthur Bennett, labelled " Rosbegh, 
Kerry, July, 1841 " ; whilst the latest known specimen — 
previous to Miss Milliard's discovery- is to be found in the 
Herbarium of the late R. M. Harrington, and appears to 
have been gathered by a coast-guard named John Reilly, 
for some years stationed at Cromane, about four miles 
distant from Rossbehy, it is labelled " Sandhills, Killorglin 
Bay, July, 1S45." From this date until the present year 
no one appears to have found this plant in Ireland. 

Is this simply a case of the Sea Pea having been 
overlooked for a period of more than seventy 3'ears ? I 
think not. Three of the records given above are rather 
vague and might refer either to the ve^'y extensive three- 
mile stretch of sand-hills on the Inch or north side of the 
bay, or to the much smaller two-mile range on the south 
side. But both these areas have been searched several 
times without success. The Rossbehy or south line of 
sand-hills moreover is very accessible and not being broad 
admits of easy examination. On two occasions at least 
the present writer has walked these dunes, and to his 
knowledge several other botanists have paid somewhat 
lengthened visits to this much frequented seaside resort. 
The only drawback indeed to the peaceful exploration of 
these wind-swept tracts lay in the dani2:er of the botanist 
being mistaken for a moving target by the artillery which, 
for many years, made use of these sand-hills as a practice 

range. 

Several instances are known in its f^nglish haunts of the 
Sea Pea disappearing for lengthened periods after a storm 
to reappear when some favourable shift in the surface took 
place, and to some such storm or storms this gap of 73 
years in the Irish history of this plant-most probably 
including one or more unrecorded reappearances— is almost 
certainly due. 

These Castlemxaine sand-hills lie exposed at the head of 
the broad Dingle Bay to the full force of the Atlantic gales. 
A vivid descri|)tion of the violence to which these storms 
attain is given bv Dr. Smith in his " History of Kerry." 
" A few winters ago [he wrote in 1756] there happened a 



i9i8. Scully- — Lathyrus maritimiis in Kerry. 115 

great storm in this place [Inch sand-hills, Dingle Bay] 
whereby the sand was blown about so furiously, that a 
large herd of cows were driven off the peninsula, the poor 
animals chusing rather to betake themselves to the enraged 
ocean, where many of them were drowned, than to be 
overwhelmed on shore. Several of them swam across the 
bay, near two miles, through the highest waves imaginable, 
and saved their lives." 

Comparison of the last two Ordnance maps issued for 
this district, one based on a surve}^ made 1841-42, the 
other made in 1899, shows that these sand-hills have 
experienced very extensive changes even during this period 
of less than 60 years. Those on the Rossbehy side appear 
to have undergone an eastward movement varying from 
100 yards to quite 200, while those on the north side of 
the bay have shifted about 100 yards to the west. Such 
changes as these would fully account for the temporary 
or even the permanent disappearance of this plant. 

The Sea Pea is not a common species anywhere in the 
British Isles. It occurs, at long intervals, from the Orkneys, 
round the east coast, to Sussex and Dorset on the south. 
Elsewhere, it has a very wide range, chiefly northern, in 
Europe, Asia, and North x\merica. In its Rossbehy station, 
which I purposely leave vague, Miss Hilliard reports that 
there are one or two good sized patches of the plant, and 
it is much to be wished that any future gatherer Vv-ill be 
as sparing of the Sea Pea as its rarity and interest to Irish 
botanists fully warrant. 

This most welcomie proof of the persistence of Lathyrus 
maritimiis in its only Irish station finds an interesting 
parallel in the history of Rubus Chamaemorus reported 
from the Tyrone mountains in 1826 and not seen again 
until refound there in 1892 b}'^ Messrs. Hart and Barrington,. 
as recorded in this Journal (vide vol. i., p. 124). 

Dublin. 



A 2 



ii6 The Irish Naturalist. Aug. -Sept 



SOME COUNTY DOWN PLANTS. 

BY R. LLOYD PRAEGER. 

In 1902, a week spent in the Ardgiass district^ resulted 
in the extension to this portion of the coast of County 
Down of three local trefoils — Trifoliiim striatum, T. filijorme, 
and Trii^onella ornithopodioides : the first and third each 
resting its claim for admission to the flora of the north- 
east on a single old unverified record, the second previously 
unknown in that area. T. striatum then proved to be still 
abundant in the old station referred to — Whitehead, in Co. 
Antrim. — and to be of fre([uent occurrence in the Ardgiass 
district. The Fenugreek (Trigonella) could not be refound 
in its old station (Kinnegar, Holy wood) : S. A. Stewart 
and others had previously failed to find it there, and it was 
set down as casual in " Flora of the North-east of Ireland " ; 
but its occurrence in three places in the Ardgiass district 
went to suggest that it had previously occupied the Kin- 
negar as a native. The third plant, T. fdiforme, new to the 
north-east, was seen in only one station in the Ardgiass 
district — a rocky knoll in Ardgiass where the sceptical 
might doubt its being native, for it is certainly introduced 
in some of its Irish stations, being indeed an accepted 
constituent of seed-mixtures for lawns. In the following 
season (1893), in the adjoining area of the Ards, I hoped 
to extend the range of these plants, but no trace of any 
of them was seen. The season was, however, unfavourable, 
and my visit too late (end of Juh^ ; but I wrote at the 
time tliat there was plenty of suitable ground there for 
them, and that I thought it probable that some of th^m — 
T. striatum at least — would yet turn up in the Ards. 2 



1 Praeger : Some Plants ot the North-east Coast. Irish. Nat., xi., 
200. 1902. 

^Praeger: Botanizing in the Ards. I4'ish Nat., xii., 259, 1903. 



i9i8. pRAEGER. — Sofuc County Down Plants. iiy 

Last July, in the course of a week spent at Portaferry, 
I made an attempt to determine the range along the coast 
of these rare trefoils. The season was again unfavourable. 
A severe drought had the country in its grip, and the rocky 
knolls which experience had shown to be the chosen habitat 
of these plants was occupied by brown dead vegetation, 
dry as tinder. T. striatum, on account of its comparatively 
large heads, was fairly eas}^ to see, and it was found in 
five stations, growing either on glaciated knolls of Silurian 
rock or on raised beach gravels well turfed over. Its range 
is now extended as far as Kearne\^ in the Ards, and probably 
other stations further north will be found linking up its 
Antrim station at Whitehead — Ballymacormick Point, for 
instance, would appea.r a very likel}^ spot for it. The 
problem of finding the other two Trefoils was more diflficult, 
on account of the state of the ground and their inconspicuous 
appearance, but by dint of hands-and-knees work the 
position of T. flli forme as an LUster native was confirmed 
by the finding of three quite satisfactory stations on rocky 
ground amid a purely native flora. Trigonella alone defied 
all efforts to find it, but it seems likely enough that under 
more favourable circumstances it will be found. 

For the rest, my observations on the plants of the area 
went to verify the facts set down in the two papers quoted 
above, \\ithout adding ver}- much to them. Most of the 
rarer plants were seen in the stations there quoted, and 
some in fresh stations as given below. Crambe maritima 
is at present less abundant than formerly in South Bay, 
four large and six small plants forming this colony at 
present. Glyceria festucaeformis is as abundant as ever on 
the islets in Strangford Lough, and v.rs seen also in the 
original station in Marlfield Bay^ and in ^Tr. \\'addell's 
station half a mile north of Portaferry. 2 With regard to 
the comparison made in m}^ Ards paper on the floras of 
Ards and of Lecale, Orchis pyramidalis was added to the 
flora of the former, and G-'ranitcm columhinum to that of 
the latter. 



"^ Irish Nat., xii., 255. ^ Irish Nat., xiv., 19 

* 



A ^ 



Ii8 The. Irish Naturalist. Aug.-Sept., 

Papaver Argemone L. — Knockinelder and near Portaferry. 

P. Rhoeas L. — About Portaferry. 

P. somniferum L. — Apparently naturalized on stony beach at Tara. 

Senebiera didyma Pers. — Strangford Quay. 

Raphanus maritimus Smith. — Abundant south of Kilclief Castle ; at 

Cloghy, north of Kearney, and north of Newcastle (Ards). 
Erodiura moschatum L'Herit. — A good colony at the base of Audley's 

Castle, Strangford. 
Trifolium striatum L. — In Lecale N.E. of the corn mill in Mill Quarter 

Bay, and a quarter mile N.E. of Kilclief Castle. In the Ards a 

little N. and S. of Long Port, a quarter mile S.E. of Quintin Castle 

and a quarter mile S. of Kearney. 
T. filiforme L. — On glaciated hummocks S. of Ballyedock Lodge (opposite 

Kilclief) and a quarter mile N. of Long Port ; on turfed raised 

beach gravels at Ballyquintin Point. I think certainly native 

in these stations. 
Geranium columbinum L.— Roadside bank a mile S. of Strangford. 
Anthriscus vulgaris Pers. — Cloghy and Kearney. 
Crithmum maritimum L. — In addition to its station north of Kearney, 

a small colony was found a quarter mile south of Kearney, on 

gravel. 
Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. — Seems naturalized on stony beach at 

Tara. 
Hyoscyamus niger L. — Still in Corry's station on north shore of Killard 

Point. 
Cuscuta ^p. — A Dodder, too immature to name, was found on seaside 

herbage in three places — on the top of the calcrtte cliff of Benderg 

Bay, near Ballyedock Lodge (opposite Kilclief) and at Cloghy. 

Mr. Waddell has recorded (/. A^, xxi., 134) C. Epithymum from 

Killard, near the first-named station, and tells me he has collected 

the same plant at Cloghy, so probably my plants are all this. 

It appears to be naturalized in this district ; all the stations are 

away from cultivated land. 
Atriplex farinosa Dum. — Kilclief. 
A. portulacoides L. — North and south of Portaferry, and a half mile north 

of Ballyquintin Point. 
Habenaria viridis R. Br. — Abundant at Killard, and varying much in 

colour — green, yellow, brown, and almost red. 
Orchis pyramidalis L. — Sparingly a little north and south of Quintin 

Castle, and a half mile north of Kearney. 
Juncus glaucus Ehrh. — White Hills near Strangford. 
Typha angustifolia L. — Ballyfinragh Lough, 
Shara polyacantha Braun. — In the extensive marsh at White Hills near 

Strangford. 

National Library, Dublin. 



igiS. HuGGiNS — Limnaeac of West Cork Alpine Lakes. 119 

THE LIMNAEAE OF THE ALPINE LAKES IN THE 
GLENGARRIFF DISTRICT, WEST CORK. 

BY H. C. HUGGINS. 

During the past few years I have on several occasions 
visited Glengarriff, West Cork ; usually in the month of 
May ; and my time has more especially been devoted to 
the study of the Limnaea pereger group of snails found in 
the neighbouring mountain tarns. Several of these have 
already been visited by Fleet-Surgeon K. H. Jones, Dr. 
R. F. Scharff, and Messrs. A. W. Stelfox, J. N. Milne, and 
R. A. Phillips, to all of whom I am indebted for information 
concerning the district. In the present year, however, 
owing to the exceptionally fine weather, I was enabled to 
work some of the lakes in the Caha mountains, which, to 
the best of my knowledge, have never previously been 
visited by collectors. 

These lakes, which are situated on a mountain plateau 
overlooking both Barley L?Jce and the Coomarkane Valley, 
vary in altitude between 1,400 and 1,550 feet above the 
sea level. They are all deep, with stony bottoms, and 
contain scarcely an}^ vegetation except a few stray reeds 
round their edges. In one only did I see some plants of 
Potamogeton, though the bottoms were in most cases 
partly covered with dead sheep-grass that had been blown 
or washed in during the winter. The water in all of them 
is decidedly peaty, and judging from the taste contains 
traces of iron in several cases, though not to the same 
extent as the water at Glengarriff itself, which has a rusty 
flavour which renders it most unpleasant to strangers. 

As might be expected the shells of the L. pereger group 
found in them were, owing to the great altitude, the presence 
of the peat, and the depth and coldness of the water, of 
very extreme forms ; two lakes contained specimens refer- 
able to L. praetenuis, but mostly with very low or intorted 
spires, and two more were inhabited b}^ L. involuta. 

The shells of the neighbourhood fall roughly into three 
groups, a dark sluggish usually intorted one, small in size 
and moderatety thick in shell, which includes the shells 



120 The Irish Naturalist. Aug.-Sept., 

previously called " L. involuta " ; a much more active 
larger-shelled one, which has a higher spire and appears 
glistening whitish in the water, and from its extreme tenuity 
of shell may, for purposes of reference, be called " L. 
praetemns," and a usually strongly spired, rougher, still 
thicker-shelled group which appears brown or dark yellow 
in the water, to which I shall refer as " L. pereger." The 
characters in these groups are not constant, " L. involuta " 
sometimes has a spire, and " L. praetenuis " in one locality 
is almost invariably intorted, though differing in no other 
respect from the shell described as that species from Lough 
Nagarriva. 

I carefully examined each lake but on no occasion did 
I find L. praetenuis or L. involuta co-existing with L. pereger 
or each other, and as none of these three molluscs co-exist 
in any other locality I am of the opinion that L. involuta 
and L. praetenuis are simply extreme forms of a lacustrine 
race of L. pereger, though this may possibly prove to be a 
distinct species from the L. pereger found in streams and 
ditches. My idea is, I think, borne out by the fact that, 
though all the lakes appear of an exactly similar character, 
there are nevertheless some factors connected with each of 
them causing variation, as I am assured by the local 
fishermen that each contains a distinct race of trout ; 
and the fish I had an opportunity of examining from 
five lakes bore out the statement. The fish from Lough 
Nambrack, pale green, oval, with a very few small black 
and pink spots, made a striking contrast with the thick 
copper-red ones from Red Trout Lough, only half a mile 
away ; the latter being covered with large black and 
flaming crimson spots. If any collector who is also a fly- 
fisherman should visit the neighbourhood it might prove 
of interest to catch and compare the fish from each lake, 
possibl}' similar races of trout would be found to inhabit 
the L. praetenuis tarns, and corresponding races the localities 
for L. pereger and L. involuta. 

Very few of the Caha lakes are named on the one-inch 
ordnance map, but I kept a note-book as I collected in 
which I marked the lakes A, B, C, etc., as in the 
accompanying map. Although the lakes themselves are 



igiS. HuGGiNS. — Limnaeae of West Cork Alpine Lakes. I21 



really situated on the watershed of the district, the majority 
of those I visited being within the 1,500 feet contour, 
nevertheless there is a ridge across the plateau dividing 
them into two systems. On the south-western side of the 




EZKENO HOOU KEAqH/'Wi, 
850, 



3Ke:tch maf 

OF THC 

CAHA LAKCS, 



ridge Loughs " K," " L," and the main stream from Red 
Trout Lough (w^hich lies in a hollow of the ridge itself) 
drain into the big lake system towards Castletown on the 
further side of Mount Glenlough. Lough " D," again in 
the ridge itself, drains into Lough Nambrack, the stream 
from the latter, joining the rivulet from Lough " E," 
plunges over the cliff into Derreenadavodia and thence 
drains into the Coomarkane valley. 

On the north-eastern side of the ridge the smaller stream 
from the north end of Red Trout Lough drains into Lough 
" J," which again drains into Lough " 1," the stream from 
which joins that from Loughanillaun (which in its turn 
drains Lough " G " and receives one of the two effluents 



122 The Irish Naturalist. Aug.-Sept., 

of Lough " H ") and flows in a north-easterly direction 
into the Kerry River. The other stream from Lough 
" H '' and also that from Lough " F " flow into Lough 
" C," and the stream from the latter after receiving the 
rivulets from the two isolated Loughs " B " and " A " 
flows into Barley Lake, the river from which, the Owena- 
cahina, effects a junction with the Kerry River in the 
valley to form the main Glengarriff River. 

It will be seen by reference to my list given below that 
the three " species " L. involuta, L. praetenuis, and L. 
pereger, are found on each side of the main ridge, and also 
that almost every lake of the Caha series is connected with 
at least one other. Having regard to the shortness of the 
distance traversed by these streams, and their size, it is 
quite certain that in rainy weather a fair number of molluscs 
must be washed from one lake into another, yet in none 
of them can two kinds be found together. This phenomenon 
is all the more striking as egg-capsules, which appear to 
be chiefl}' deposited on the loose fragments of dead sheep- 
grass mentioned above, must be washed from one pool to 
another with the slightest freshet, as the pieces of grass 
were running freely out of several of the pools on the day 
of my first visit, when we had had rain two days previously. 
It is idle to suppose that conditions can be so widely 
different in the lakes that it is physically impossible for one 
species to exist in a locality which supports abundantly 
members of another, yet to some such theory must anyone 
be driven who has examined the plateau unless he take 
the simple solution that L. involuta and L. praetenuis are 
" syntonic " forms of L. pereger, in which case the difficulty 
disappears at once. In a syntonic form, as defined by 
Messrs. Kennard and Woodward ,i varietal characters are 
not inherited but remain constant so long as environment 
is unchanged, a resumption of normal conditions causing 
reversion to type. Thus L. praetenuis, if a syntonic form 
of L. pereger, would, on coming into a lough containing 
L. pereger, produce nothing but L. pereger. 



1 " The Post-Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland." Proceedings 
of the Geologists' Association, vol. xxviii., p. 112, part 3, 1917. 



igiS. HuGGiNS. — Limfiaeae of West Cork Alpine Lakes. 123 

One would expect, however, in the lower lakes where 
there was a constant influx of new blood that the local 
races would be more or less in a state of flux, and this is 
borne out b}/ the facts, for on carefully going over my notes 
I find L. praetenuis is found in a lake very difficult of access 
from below% either an isolated lake, as Caha "A," which 
only communicates with Barley Lake some hundreds of 
feet below, or the top lake of a series like Caha " D." 
Similarly in Caha " B " I found a most remarkable glossy 
thin-shelled race of L. pereger, not an example exhibiting 
the slightest trace of variation, and as might be expected 
Caha " B " is again an isolated mountain basin, com- 
municating only with Barley Lake. It is also interesting 
to note that Lough Nambrack receives only the stream 
from the L. praetenuis Lough " D " above, and the L. 
involuta found in this lake, though hving at no greater 
height than those in Caha " C " scarcely half a mile away, 
are of a constant very highly specialised form, being as 
extremely intorted as those of Lough Crincaum and 
beautifully polished and striated. Those found in Caha 
" C," which receives the efliuents from Loughs " F " and 
" H," lakes on the same level in which L. pereger abounds, 
are, on the other hand, rougher, much more coarsely 
striated, and display considerable variation, frequently 
having a rudimentary spire as in Barley Lake. 

As the weather was hot I spent some time this year in 
watching the behaviour of the animals in their native 
places, and the three groups, " L. involuta," " L. praetenuis," 
and " L. pereger " each have somewhat different habits. 
L. involuta looks jet black in the water and sticks tight 
to stones like an Ancylus,usually with its tentacles projecting. 
It crawls very little and very slowly, clinging so firmly 
that the stone can be lifted from the water with the animal 
still adhering, and often it is hard to scrape it off without 
damaging the shell. L. pereger is more active and looks 
yellowish-brown, when a dark individual is seen in the 
water it has a bronze-golden lustre, absent in L. involuta 
(no doubt from the greater thickness of shell) ; while L, 
praetenuis, which has a glistening whitish appearance in 
the water recalling the sheen of a water-spider, is an 



124 ^^"'' ^^i^^i' Naturalist. Aug.-Sept., 

exceedingly nervous excitable mollusc, crawling actively 
about and frequently loosening its hold and floating to the 
surface, where it coasts about with its foot uppermost. 
1 have often noticed this habit in L. peveger, but not to 
the same extent as in L. praetemiis. The latter mollusc 
is so sensitive that if a shadow come across the sun many 
individuals immediately retire beneath the stones, and if 
the sunHght fall on a spot hitherto shaded by the high 
rocks which surround a tarn specimens come crawling out 
in all directions where few were visible five minutes before. 
The difference in the habits of L. praetenuis and L. involuta 
has already been noticed by Fleet-Surgeon K. H. JonesJ 
but in his case the more active mollusc was seen climbing 
on weed in Lough Nagarriva, whereas there are few or no 
weeds in the Caha Lakes. I noticed one other point that 
may prove of interest ; on reaching home I found that L. 
pereger had usually withdrawn far into its shell, L. praetenuis 
just to the lip, and L. involuta had rarely wholly retired. 
I do not, however, regard this difference in the habits of 
the three as being of more than racial importance, any 
more than I regard the different habits of the trout in the 
various lakes as any claim to specific rank ; in one lake 
the trout will rise furiously to fly while in the next it will 
be useless to fish for them except with worm on a dull day. 
The following is a complete list of the lakes I have 
visited round Glengarriff and of the Limnaeae inhabiting 
them ; the heights are approximate, to the nearest 50 feet, 
for as can be seen from my description of the flow of the 
streams there are slight differences in the height of almost 
all of them. ^ 

Barley Lake, Caha range, 779 feet, contains L. involuta, 
, where it was discovered by Mr. R. A. PhiUips some 

years back ; it is not of such an extreme form as those 

from Lough Crincaum, Killarney. A few specimens 

have rudimentary spires. 
Lough " A," Caha Lakes, 1,400 feet. — L. praetenuis, all 

extremely short-spired, quite fifty per cent, of the 

specimens being more or less intorted. 

^Journal of Conchology J vol. 13, p. 288. 



igiS. HuGGiNS. — Limnaeae of West Cork Alpine Lakes. 125 

Lough " B," Caha Lakes, 1,450 feet, is inhabited by a 
very beautiful race of L. pereger, extremely thin, 
glossy, and closely striated, with short, perfectly formed 
acute spires. A very clean and attractive shell. 

Lough " C," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet, contains L. invokita, 
almost exactly similar to the race in Barley Lake, but 
slightly more square-shouldered and deeply intorted. 

Lough " D," Caha Lakes, 1,550 feet : — L. praetenuis, 
almost all intorted, with narrower mouth and less 
suture than the Lough Nagarriva form. 

Lough Verdanillaun, Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — Nil. 

Lough " E," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet :— Nil. 

Lough " F," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — L.pereger, a rough, 
thicker, more coarsely striated form, many specimens 
were decollated and a few^ slightly intorted. 

Lough Nambrack, Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — L. involufa, 
an extremely bright glossy form, many specimens were 
as deeply intorted as any I have seen from Lough 
Crincaum. 

Lough " G," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — Nil. 

Lough " H," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — L. pereger, a round 
short spired, somewhat glossy form ; nearly all the 
specimens were decollated and several appeared to be 
naturally intorted. 

Lough " I," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — L. pereger, rough, 
not glossy, and coarsely striated, with a moderately 
raised spire, almost all showing signs of decollation. 

Lough " J," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — L. pereger, rough, 
not glossy and coarsely striated, with a moderately 
raised spire, almost all showing signs of decollation. 

Lough " K," Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet f^' P^reger-jmilar to 

r ^ ^. '< T " r u T ^ ^ -cx^ thosc found m 

Lough L, Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet ) ^ , 

I Lough "J," 

inhabited both these tarns but owing to lack of time 
I did not take specimens. 

LouGHANiLLAUN, Caha Lakes, 1,500 feet : — Nil. 

Red Trout Lough, Caha Lakes, 1,550 feet. Curiously 
enough the L. pereger in this, almost the highest lake 
of the series, were exceedingly high-spired in some 
instances. . Almost all the specimens were damaged 



126 The Irish Naturalist. Aug.-Sept., 

by decollation, but one or two of the perfect ones I 
took were the highest spired I have taken in any Irish 
pool, except some extraordinary ones from a pool on 
Inishmore in the Aran Islands, which Mr. R. A. 
Phillips jokingly remarked looked like a cross between 
L. pereger and L. trimcatula. The shells were rough 
and coarse with no glossiness at all. 
Lough Derreenadavodia, 800 feet, nil ; I was very 

disappointed in this fine sheet of water. 
Lough Eekenohoolikeaghaum, 850 feet ; this lake and 
Lough Derreenadavodia are situated in a high saddle 
at the end of the Coomarkane Valley, where the Caha 
mountains jut out to Slieve-na-Goil (sugar loaf). It 
contains a race of Limnaea pereger exactly similar to 
that found in Lough More, small, closely striated and 
glossy, with a deep suture and short spire, often slightly 
decollated. In a few instances perfect full-grown 
specimens had no projecting external spire, the 
specimens were not intorted but the top of the spire 
was flush with the next and subsequent whorls, giving 
a rounded top to the shell. 
Lough Avaul, 400 feet, on the Castletown Road, wdiere 
the hills drop from Slieve-na-Goil to the sea. This 
interesting lake, partially drained last autumn, formerly 
contained (1914) two races of L. pereger ; a round 
short-spired rough form inhabiting the lake itself, while 
a narrow, very smooth and glossy, bright reddish 
coloured one was abundant clinging to the rocks of 
the waterfall at its outlet. The lake specimens were 
. perfect, the outlet ones almost all decollated. 
Lough Nagarriva, 1,200 feet. In vSouth Kerry. The 
historic locality where L. praetcmiis was discovered 
by Messrs. Stelfox and Milne in 1907 ; the hills in 
which it is situated are a continuation of the same 
range as the Cahas ; the specimens have higher spires 
than the Caha ones, but appear identical in habits, 
appearance in the water, and the diaphanous texture 
of the shell, which when fresh and wet can be pressed 
almost fiat and inflated again like that of Hygromia 
jusca. • 



igiS. HUGGINS. — Limnaeae of West Cork Alpine Lakes, 127 

Lough Namaddra, 1,200 feet ; also contains L. praetemtis. 

I noted the fact as lakes just as close together in the 

Caha range contain different races. 

Lough More, 400 feet, on the Bantry Road, contains a 

race of L. pereger exactly similar to that found in 

Lough Eekenohoolikeaghaum, except that specimens 

are rarely decollated, and I noticed none of the curious 

round-spired specimens mentioned above. 

For a thorough comprehension of these alpine shells it 

must be borne in mind that such shells as " L. praetenuis " 

and " L. involuta " are by no means constant, even in their 

original type-locality. I do not attach an exaggerated 

importance to unsupported testaceological characters, but 

it must be noted that by judicious selection a series can 

be made grading from the lake form of '' L. pereger " found 

in Caha Lough " F " to the slightly intorted specimens 

found there, and thence through the " L. involuta " of 

Barley Lake down to the most extreme forms found in 

Lough Crincaum, without the slightest break in the chain. 

" L. praetenuis " exhibits the same variations ; Dr. R. F. 

Scharff tells me the Donegal specimens differ somewhat 

from the Kerry ones, and ]\Ir. A. S. Kennard has shown 

me some from Donegal localities, of which some specimens 

are quite as thick as some of the Glengarriff " L. pereger," 

and others as extremely intorted as any " L. involuta " I 

have seen. Finally Dr. Scharff tells me that he was 

informed some years back that " L. involuta," bred in 

captivity, produced " L. pereger " in the second generation, 

but most unfortunately we do not know under what 

conditions this otherwise most valuable experiment was 

carried out, and hence must discard it for the present. 

Since writing the above, I have been able, through the 
kindness of Mr. A. S. Kennard, to examine the specimens 
of " L. praete ids " taken in the lakes of Donegal and 
Fern.anagh by the late Major Trevelyan. Further ex- 
amination has only confirmed my previous opinion that 
" L. praetenuis " is a myth, at least so far as testaceolo- 
gical characters go ; no specimens from any one locality 
resemble closely those from any other, and none agree 
with the description of the shell given in the Rev. E. W, 



128 The Irish Naturalist. Aug.-Sept, 

Bowell's original paperi either in size, shape, or tenuity. 
They also bear little resemblance to the Nagarriva 
specimens from which the description was made, but have, 
on the other hand, a strong family likeness to '' L. pereger" 
collected by me in many localities in the west and south- 
west of Ireland. 

I am sensible of the gravity of my omission in giving 
no anatomical details in this paper and can only say as 
an excuse that I am no anatomist myself and all those 1 
know are at present otherwise engaged owing to the war. 
It was my first intention merely to write a short note 
recording my new captures in the Caha Lakes, and to 
continue my investigation of other lakes in those mountains 
in the future, waiting till after the war when I could have 
dissections made of specimens from each locality before 
publishing these notes, but private reasons render it unlikely 
that I shall be able to visit Ireland again in the near future 
and present publication imperative. 1 have a few specimens 
preserved in spirit for the future, and must be content 
with this, but wish to emphasise the fact that my conclusions 
are not based on a random collection of shells but on a 
careful investigation of local conditions which may at any 
rate have some value to future workers. 

Syndale House, Sittingbourne. 



OBITUARY. 

ROBERT OLIVER CUNNiNQHAM. 

The announcement of the death of Dr. Robert O. Cunningham, at 
the age of 77 years, will be received with much regret by many Ulster 
naturalists who were associated with him during his thirty years' occupancy 
of the chair of Natural History at Queen's College, Belfast. He was 
born in 1841 at Prestonpans, Scotland, where his father was minister 
of the Free Church, and graduated in 'cience and medicine at Edinburgh 
University. As a young man he was attached as naturalist to a 
scientific expedition to South America, and published on his return an 
account of the voyage in whicli he added to the knowledge of the natural 
history of Patagonia and Argentina. Shortly afterwards (in 1871) he 
was appointed to a comprehensive chair, whose occupant " professed " 
the three natural sciences of zoology, botany, and geology at the Queen's 



J- Irish Naturalist, vol. xvii., 1908, p. 46. 



i9i8. Obituary. izg 

College, Belfast, where he faithfully carried out his arduous teaching 
duties until his resignation of the post in 1902. During his well-earned 
retirement. Dr. Cunningham lived in the south of England. 



JAMES NAPIER MILNE. 

On 13th June there passed away in Glasgow James Napier Milne, a 
naturalist in the truest sense. Born at Forres, in Elgin, in 1841, Milne's 
parents came to Ireland when he was quite a boy, and took up their 
residence in Navan, Co. Meath. 

On the completion of his course as a teacher at the Training College, 
Dublin, he was appointed to the school at Armoy, Co. Antrim. 
Subsequently he became principal in the school at Waterside, Londonderry, 
leaving this to take charge of that at Culmore, where he remained for 
upwards of twenty years, until his retirement in 1903. During this 
time he was actively interested in entomology, conchology, and was a 
keen fisherman. On his coming to reside in Belfast entomology ceased 
to be a possible study, for, as he told me once, the sight of an elderly 
gentleman \\-ith a butterfly net skipping nimbly round a lamp-post after 
dark, attracted considerable attention, the last thing in the world Milne 
desired ; while his investigation of the suburban lanes with treacle pot 
and lantern was resented by the lovers who frequented such places. 
Milne, therefore, turned his attention to the land and freshwater shells, 
assisting others to explore unworked districts in Mayo, Kerry, and Donegal, 
and at the same time steadily working at the local shells of the north- 
eastern counties. 

A man of the most modest and retiring disposition, he recorded 
practically none of his finds, so that future workers will never realize 
the amount of field work accomplished by him. For a companion in 
the field his was an ideal nature ; no discomforts produced a grumble, 
no failures damped his good humour. But it was as a raconteur of his 
experiences that he will be best remembered by his most intimate friends, 
to whom his quiet mirth and fund of anecdote were alone revealed. In 
his last years he suffered greatly from rheumatism, which prevented him 
from undertaking long excursions. Nevertheless he still continued his 
local work, until the death of his sister, Mrs. Hunter, with whom he lived 
necessitated his removal to Glasgow. 

Like many keen naturalists he was gifted with remarkable sight and 
appreciation of detail ; that vision which can not only see differences, 
but that much rarer gift, the faculty of seeing relationships between 
things of different habit and appearance. 

I hope to collect and publish in the future some of Milne's most 
interesting finds in the realm of conchology, but of his entomological 
wcrk I am not in a position to speak. To these two studies Milne's 
attention was by no means confined, as all animals and plants were of 
like interest to him, 

A, W, Stelfox, 



130 The Irish Naturalist. Aug. -Sept., 

NOTES, 

BOTANY. 

Chrysomyxa abietis in Ireland. 

On May 15th, 1918, Sir Frederick Moore sent me a specimen of Spruce 
from Kilmacurragh, Rathdrum, Co. Wicklow, affected with a form of 
" rust " on the needles which, on microscopic examination, turned out 
to be Chrysomyxa abietis Wallr. The " Needle Rust " of the Spruce 
is common in Switzerland and in Germany, but in the British Isles 
it was not until 191 1 that it was first discovered by Dr. Somerville in 
Scotland. According to Borthwick and Wilson {Trans. R. Scott. Arbor. 
Sac. vol. xxix., July, 1915, p. 187) this rust has spread considerably in 
Scotland in recent years. Lately it has also been recorded [Quart. Journ. 
Forestry, vol. xi., 3, July, 1917, p. 191) for the north of England (North- 
umberland). Sir Frederick Moore's specimen is the first that has been 
observed in Ireland, and it seems desirable to record the first appearance 
of this parasitic fungus in Ireland in the pages of the Irish Naturalist. 

George H. Pethybridge. 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



The Poisonous Properties of Oenanthe crocata. 

In Nature for July 4 the question of the poisonous properties of the 
Water Dropwort is discussed, based on an observation communicated 
by C. B. Moffat to the effect that cattle in Co. Wexford were observed 
eating this plant without any injury resulting. It is pointed out that 
according to most authorities the plant is highly poisonous to cattle, as 
witnessed by numerous cases, but that at the same time well-confirmed 
observations exist of no ill effect following eating of the plant. It would 
seem that the plant is a dangerous poison in some districts, but not in 
others ; and, as the Editor of Nature very properly observes, there is 
here a very interesting problem requiring investigation. 



ZOOLOGY. 
Black Terns on Lough Carra, Co. Mayo. 

On September 2nd (1918), when fishing on Lough Carra, I observed 
two Black Terns flying low and at no great speed at a short distance 
from the boat ; the white undertail coverts being clearly visible. The 
birds were flying in a south westerly direction. 

W. Ruttledge. 
HoUymount, Co. Mayo, 



igiS. Notes. 131 



Jays feeding: on Wheat. 

There is probably nothing very remarkable in the fact that Jays 
should visit the wheat-fields at this time of the year and partake of the 
harvest, provided that it can be done with safety. I have been much 
interested for the past fortnight (September 1-15) in watching these 
foraging expediti ns almost daily, and the manner in which they are 
carried out seems very characteristic of the bird. A large field of wheat, 
which had been cut and was in " stooks," was the scene of all my 
observations. It sloped down rapidly to a river which was about twenty- 
five or thirty yards in width, and along the bank there was a row or two 
of very fine beeches, the lower branches of which were about nine feet 
from the ground. Close to these there were several " stooks " of wheat. 
Across the river on rising ground were the woods of Castlecomer Demesne, 
where I had frequently seen and heard Jays for some months past. The 
expeditions were always organized well in in these woods on the high 
ground. One or two birds there would utter their harsh cries for a few 
seconds, these would be answered from various parts of the wood, and 
by their cries I could make out that the birds were all making for the 
rendezvous. Then there would be a regular chorus lasting for a minute 
or two ; then a dead silence, and I knew the birds had set out and I had 
better take cover. After a few minutes the party could be seen advancing 
from tree to tree, keeping in cover as well as possible and avoiding open 
spaces. The party nearly always flew singly, a bird would flap across 
an open space, and just as it regained cover a second would follow in 
practically the same line, and so on. On only two occasions did I see 
two birds crossing an open space at the same time. In this manner 
they worked their way across the river and into the beech trees over the 
wheat. Then the leader would drop down on a " stook," take a very 
careful survey around, and if all was right the other birds would follow. 
On o e occasion I purposely allowed myself to be seen though I remained 
motionless. The leader as he dropped on the wheat spotted me. He 
perched on top of the " stook," very alert, for fully two minutes watching 
and then silently flew back into the branches overhead, and in a few 
minutes I saw the party, on this occasion consisting of eight birds, 
recrossing the river in single file. If. when feeding, they became aware 
of some danger at a distance they would recr ss the river, as I have 
described, silently, and in order, but if they were taken by surprise they 
retreated in haste and disorder, and general]}^ uttered angry cries at 
first. The part}'^ varied in numbers ; on one occasion I counted twelve 
birds, whilst on others there were only five or six. Once a single bird 
came but it was knocked over by a Sparrow Hawk, and had I not run 
to its assistance would have been killed. The regularity of the whole 
proceeding was what struck me most. First the assembling in the wood 
with harsh cries, then the absolutely silent passage between the wood 
and the field, the regular order of the advance and of the retreat if the 
birds were not frightened. I never saw any of the birds out at a distance 



132 ' The Irish 'Naturalist. Aug.-Sept., 1918. 

in the field, they only attacked the " stocks " of wheat close in under 
the beech trees. Practically the same line of flight was follow^ed day 
after day ; they appeared to me to meet in the same place in the wood, 
and certainly on each occasion when I have watched them they arrived 
in the same beech tree. Occasionally they uttered a few cries when 
they got safely back to the wood, but more often they remained silent. 

W. M. Abbott. 
Fermoy. 



Scarcity of the Fieldfare. 

Fieldfares were totally absent from this part of Co. Wexford during the 
whole of the late autumn and winter of 1917-18 ; but as we generally have 
our largest influx of that species in April at Ballyhyland I waited till that 
month was over before sending any report. The winter, in fact, had 
no sooner gone than these " winter-birds " began to arrive. I saw only 
one small party during the last week of March ; but by April 12th they 
were fairly numerous, and they remained so until the 20th of that month, 
after which I saw them no more. I have never before known the 
Fieldfare to be an absentee during the entire winter ; but it was at least 
cheering to see the spring passengers in something like their usual force 
and plenty. 

C. B. Moffat. 

Ballyhyland, Enniscorthy. 



Owls clapping- their Wing's. 

To the notes furnished on this subject by Messrs. Burkitt (/. Nat., 
vol. xxvi., p. 161), and Bolam (vol. xxvii., p. 15) I should like to add 
that the Barn-Owl is also addicted to clapping its wings — chiefly, as in 
the case of both the other species referred to, during the excitement of 
the nuptial season. It is, of course, possible that both sexes of the 
Barn-Owl occasionally clap ; but from frequently watching them at 
their time of first taking flight I can confidently say that one bird in 
each pair does it habitually, while the other, as a rule, takes its flight 
silently, so far as the wings are concerned. This, I ha\e also found to 
be the case (from watching several pairs in the Ballyhyland woods), with 
the Long-eared Owl ; but Mr. Burkitt has successfully shown as to that 
species that the clapping is not restricted to the male, so I can only say 
that the female bird goes in for it very much more sparingly than her 
mate. The same is true, in general, of the Nightjar, 

C. B. Moffat. 
Ballyhyland, Enniscorthy. 



Oct.-Nov., 191 8. The Irish Naturalist, 133 

THE IRISH RED DEER. 

BY R. F. SCHARFF, B.SC, M.R.I. A. 

Three kinds of deer formerly inhabited Ireland, viz. : — 
the Reindeer [Rangifer tarandus), the Irish Giant Deer or 
Irish " Elk " [Cervus giganteus), and the Red Deer {Cervus 
elaphus). The first two became extinct so long ago that 
we do not even possess any evidence of their having existed 
in this country within historical times. It is quite different 
with the Red Deer which still survives in a semi-domesticated 
and not entirely pure strain in the forests of Killarney. 
The deer which we notice in the Phoenix Park, Dublin, 
and many other parks, belong to quite another species which 
never was indigenous in Ireland. They are Fallow Deer 
and are easily distinguished from the Red Deer by their 
flattened or palmated antlers. 

The extinction of the Red Deer in Ireland as a wild 
animal is quite a recent historical event. There may still 
be people living who have actually seen wild Red Deer. 
William Thompson (1) states that when travelling in the west 
in 1834 he was informed that there were still thirteen Red 
Deer in Connemara and tw^elve in the barony of Erris. 
About this time a few were believed to survive in the Galtee 
Mountains in Tipperary, and also near Glengarriff in 
County Cork. According to Mr. George T. Macartney's 
note in the Field of 1874 an exceptionally heavy snowfall 
occurred in the year 1834 which seems to have led to the 
final extinction of the Erris herd of Red Deer. From 
another source it was reported that the last specimen in 
Erris was shot near Nephin Beg in 1830 by Thomas Lynn, 
but that in the year of the great snow (1834 ?) another 
came down into the lowlands and was killed by the country 
people with spades and pitchforks. 

About the same period several country gentlemen in 
the west of Ireland, notably Lord Sligo and Major Knox, 
kept small herds of Red Deer in their parks. Occasionally 
it happened that some of these escaped and were shot in 
the mountains, and to this fact may be due the report 
that five deer were killed in Erris in the year 1850. 

A 



134 ^^'^ Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Nov., 

As regards the south of Ireland WilHam Thompson (1) 
states that he was informed in 1850 by Lord Bantry's 
gamekeeper that some wild Red Deer still existed in 
the neighbourhood of (ilengariff in County Cork. In 
Waterford and Tipperary the Red Deer seems to have 
become extinct at a much earlier period, for we are told 
by Mr. Ussher (2) that in the mountains of Knockmealdown 
which occupy a large area between these counties they were 
apparently on the verge of extinction in 1774, although, 
according to Wilham Thompson (1) a few Red Deer still 
lived in the Galtee Mountains at the beginning of last 
century. 

Earlier records of the existence of the Red Deer in 
Ireland are scattered about in various books and pamphlets 
but they lack detail. Sir William Brereton (3) writes in 
the year 1635 that in the large park near Carnew in 
County Wicklow there are plenty of both Red and Fallow 
Deer. References are made in the State Papers of Henry 
VIII. (4) to the number of people engaged in deer-hunting 
in Kilkenny and Tipperary in the year 1525. According 
to the Calendar of Close Rolls (5) Edward the First sent a 
messenger to Ireland in 1275 for the purpose of purchasing 
" brackets " (hounds) for stag-hunting.-^ Giraldus Cam- 
brensis (6) during his travels in Ireland in the twelfth 
century speaks of the stags as being so fat that they lose 
their speed, and the more slender they are in shape the 
more nobly they carry their heads and branching antlers. 
It is quite certain that the Red Deer was indigenous in 
Ireland and must have been very abundant throughout the 
country for many centuries past. And yet we are told 
that when the Royal Forest at Glencree in County 
Wicklow was established in the thirteenth century eighty 
deer were sent from the Royal Forest at Chester in the 
year 1244 to stock this park. Mr. Le Fanu (7) to whom 
we are indebted for this information assumes that it is 
hardly likely such trouble and expense would have been 
incurred had there been no natural or artificial boundary 
to prevent the deer from straying away. 

^ I am greatly indebted to Mr. J. de W. Hindi for furnishing me with 
above particulars. 



i9i8. ScHARFF. — Tlic Irish Red Deer. 135 

Anyone unacquainted with the fossil remains of Red 
Deer in Ireland might conclude from this introduction of 
foreign stock that deer could not have inhabited this country 
at that time. But there is no doubt whatever that Red 
Deer from the remotest time must have been extraordinarily 
abundant in Ireland. It seems strange therefore that Red 
Deer had to be brought from England to stock this Royal 
Forest. We meet with the bones and teeth of this deer 
in the superficial gravels, in bogs and marls. In the 
kitchen-middens all round the coast, and in the crannogs 
the bones of Red Deer may be picked up almost anywhere 
often associated with those of domestic animals. Implements 
of various kinds were manufactured in Ireland from the 
antlers of this deer. In almost all the Irish caves Red 
Deer remains have been found in profusion, sometimes 
along with those of Bear, Irish Elk, Reindeer and other 
extinct species. There is ample evidence therefore that 
the Red Deer lived in Ireland before the introduction 
alluded to. The only doubt that might possibly occur to 
anyone would be whether this deer might not have become 
extinct in the thirteenth century so as to need reintroduction. 
In that case it would have spread from Glencree Forest all 
over Ireland, and the existing semi-domesticated Killarney 
stock would be the descendants of English ancestors and 
not of the old Irish race. 

During the last century Red Deer supposed to have 
descended from the old Irish stock were kept in other 
demesnes besides Killarney. Thus Lord Maurice Fitzgerald 
had a herd in Wexford and presented to the National 
Museum in Dublin a stag, hind and young, while a skeleton 
of a Red Deer from Sir Victor Brooke's park in Fermanagh 
was sent to the Museum in 1877. They still ornament the 
collection of Irish animals, and w^e are thus able to compare 
the modern Irish Red Deer with the old deer found in bogs 
and caves. If they show very close agreement we may 
assume that the old Irish Deer survived until the nineteenth 
century unimpaired by the occasional introduction of 
English and other stock. 

The collection in the National Museum, DubHn, contains 
numerous antlers of Red Deer found in bogs, one pair with 

A 2 



1^6 



The Irish Naturalist. 



Oct.-Nov., 



no less tlian seventeen points, one complete skeleton of a 
stag from Boho, Co. Fermanagh, and the skull of a stag 
from Moatc, Co. \\'cstmeath. I shall give some measmx- 
ments in millimetres of the skulls of the recent hind and the 
two fossil stags. The measurements correspond with those 
given by Dr. Stejneger (8) of some Scandinavian deer, and 
will enable us to compare them with one another. The 
skull of the recent Irish hind was figured by Prof. Lonnberg 
in his paper on the Red Deer of Scandinavia. (9) 





Recent 
Irish Hind 

from 
Co. Fer- 


Sub-fossil 

Irish Stag 

from 

Boho. 


Sub-fossil 

Irish Stag 

from 

Moate. 






managh. 








I. Basicranial length 


301 mill. 


370 


mill. 


372 mill. 


2. Distance from ant. tip of premax. 


187 „ 


224 




224 ,, 


to orbit. 










3. Zygom. width at post, end of 


135 .. 


167 




172 ,. 


jugal. 










4. Width of skull behind premax 


56 ,. 


65 




72 » 


illaries. 










3. Length of nasals 


116 „ 


128 




133 .. 


6. Greatest width of both nasals 


39 .> 


41 




38 » 


combined. 










7. Vert, height of nose at post, end 


44 " 


Co 




60 „ 


of premax. 










8. Length of upper molar and pre- 


98 „ 


98 




99 .. 


molar series. 










0. Width of antorbital vacuity . . 


17 " 


20 




22 


10. Length of antorbital vacuity , . 


47 " 


32 




54 " 


II. Longest diam. of supraorbital 


II „ 


12 




12 ,, 


foramen. 










12. Height of maxillary above fore- 


39 .. 


46 




46 ,. 


most molar. 










13. Height of maxillary above fore- 


55 '• 


67 




67 ,. 


most premolar. 










14. Distance from lower orbit, rim 


42 „ 


49 




54 .. 


to last molar. 










15. Antlers, inside dist. betw. beams 




620 




685 ., 


at base of subroyals. 










16. Antlers, distance from burr to 




665 




635 » 


farthest point. 











i9i8. ScHARFF. — The Irish Red Deer. 137 

Some of these measurements seem to me of little value, 
and it is very difficult to indicate precisely how they were 
taken. However, on the whole, they give us a fair idea 
of the general proportions of the skull. Taking into 
consideration the fact that we are comparing quite a' small 
modern Red Deer hind with large skulls of old stags which 
may be of great antiquity, there is a remarkable resemblance 
between them. As we should expect the two stag skulls 
are much larger in every respect. Yet the proportions 
between the nasals, for example, and the antorbital vacuity 
are about the same, while the lengths of the upper molar 
and premolar tooth series are practically identical. From 
the measurements given it would be impossible to prove 
that the recent hind is the genuine descendant of the old 
Irish stock of Red Deer, because the latter may not be 
distinct from the British stock, and I have no skulls available 
from England or Scotland. 

In the paper already cited by Prof. Lonnberg two adult 
Scottish stags are referred to, and he states that their 
dimensions agree fairly well with that of the Irish recent 
hind in the Dublin Museum. Both, he remarks, are small- 
headed and short-nosed with small antorbital vacuities and 
large " foramina supraorbitalia." Although the Scottish 
skulls examined by Prof. Lonnberg belonged to fully adult 
Red Deer with antlers carrying five tines on each side 
they only had a basicranial length of 311 and 319 mill, 
respectively. They were therefore not much longer than the 
skull of the Irish hind and greatly shorter than the two 
Irish stag skulls given in my list. Nevertheless the length 
of the upper premolar and molar series in all these skulls 
varies from 92-99 mill. The size of the antorbital vacuity 
agrees in the three Irish skulls examined. Prof. Lonnberg 
only states that the antorbital vacuity in the Scottish 
skulls corresponds in size and shape with that of the 
Norwegian skulls which he tells us resembles that of the 
Irish hind. The dimensions of this vacuity in the Scottish 
skulls are about 48 mill, long by 18 mill, broad. The cor- 
responding measurements in the Irish skulls are 50 mill, 
by 20 mill. The size of the antorbital vacuity therefore 
agrees fairly well in the Irish, Scottish, and Norwegian 



13^ The Irish Naturalist. Oct.--Nov., 

skulls, whereas in the Swedish skulls it averages 60 mill, 
by 2^ mill. One of the main differences between the 
Irish and Scottish as compared with the Norwegian skulls 
lies in the shape of the nasal bones. They are flattened 
in the Norwegian skulls according to Prof. Lonnberg (9). 
In the Irish and Scottish skulls they are curved, forming 
a longitudinal ridge from the tip to the base and being 
well visible when the skull is looked at laterally. In 
the other hand Dr. Stejneger (8) maintains that an adult 
male Norwegian skull in the United States National Museum 
agrees with the Irish and Scottish skulls in the possession 
of very convex nasal bones, and in his opinion (p. 464) the 
Scottish and Norwegian deer belong to the same race or 
geographic subspecies called by Prof. Lonnberg Cervus 
elaphiis atlanticus. 

We need not enter here into the interesting speculations 
concerning the origin of the Norwegian deer raised by Dr. 
Stejneger. One of the objects of my investigations was 
to show that the modern Irish Red Deer were the true 
descendants of the ancient Irish stock. Although I have 
been unable to prove this point by a comparative study 
of the skulls it is extreme^ unlikely that the Old Irish Red 
Deer became entirely extinct in Ireland and had to be 
reintroduced from England, ^^^e have learned from this 
study that there exists a close relationship between the 
Irish, Scotch, and Norw^egian Red Deer. They belong 
to the same sub-species, whereas the Swedish Red Deer 
is sufficiently distinct to form a separate w^ell-recognisable 
race. 

There is one other point which deserves to be mentioned 
about the Irish Red Deer, viz., the colour of its fur, which 
never can be called red. It varies from yellowish brown 
in summer to greyish bro\N-n in winter, whereas the 
continental form is generally more distinctly reddish brown 
in colour. 

As regards the antlers of the typical European Red Deer 
they terminate in a cup. This cupping in the crown of 
the antler seems to become simplified gradually as we 
proceed eastward where we meet with Deer which resemble 
Red Deer but are practicall}^ identical in their antler 



I9i8. ScHAHFF — The Irish Red Deer. 139 

structure with the Wapiti Deer of North America. A 
Wapiti [cerviis canadensis) skull apart from the antlers 
is not much longer than that of a large Irish Red Deer. 
The zygomatic width at the posterior end of the jugal 
bone is about the same in both. A striking feature of 
difference is noticeable in the length and width of the nasal 
bones which are much longer and broader in the Wapiti 
than in the Irish Red Deer. The antorbital vacuity also 
is longer and broader in the Wapiti. Turning over the 
skull we further note that the series of molar and premolar 
teeth is considerably longer in the Wapiti than in the 
Irish Red Deer. The Red Deer has been known to cross 
with the Wapiti, as reported from Caledon Park, Co. Tyrone, 
and the two no doubt are nearly related to one another. 
The fact of their crossing, however, does not imply near 
relationship, since we know that the Red Deer and Japanese 
Deer are regularly producing hybrids in Powerscourt Park, 
Co. Wicklow\ It is the structure and formation of the 
skull and teeth which are very similar in the Red Deer 
and Wapiti. Through the kindness of the Earl of Kenmare 
and his representative, Mr. Mathews, I am now being 
supplied with a series of Red Deer skulls from Killarney, 
and when these have been thoroughly cleaned I may be 
able to describe more clearly the structure of the surviving 
race of the Irish Deer. 



List of Works cited in this Paper, 

1. Thompson, W. — -Natural History of Ireland, vol. iv., 1856. 

2. UssHER, R. J. — Notes on Irish Red Deer, Zoologist, vol. vi. (3), 1882. 

3. Brereton, W. — Travels in Holland and Ireland, Chethani Soc, vol. I, 

1844. 

4. State Papers, Henry VIII., Part 3, 1834. 

5. Calendar of Close Rolls iii., Edward I., Membrane 5, 1275. 

6. GiRALDUs Cambrensis. — Topography of Ireland, London, 1881. 

7. Le Fanu, T. P. — Royal Forest of Glencrce, Journ. Soc. Antiq. 

Ireland, vol. 3, 1893. 

8. Stejneger, L. — Origin of so-called Atlantic animals and plants of 

Norway, Smithsonian MisceH. Coll., vol. 48, 1907. 

9. Lonnberg E. — On the geographic races of Red Deer in Scandinavia, 

Avkiv fov Zoologi, vol. 3, igo6. 

National ]\luseum, Dublin. 



140 The Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Nov., 

SOME NOTES ON BIRDS, ESPECIALLY THE 

WHITETHROAT. 

BY J. P. BURKITT. 

That some migrant birds return to the same neighbourhood 
is commonly held in regard to Swallows, but the more I 
study birds the more evident it is to me that individuals 
of many species, if not of most, return to exactly the same 
sites of previous years. In the more abundant species 
this mieht be hard to verify, but I can see it in the cases 
of Goldfinch, Long-tailed Tit, Redpoll, Whinchat, Nightjar, 
Grasshopper Warbler, Garden Warbler, and Whitethroat, 
specially clearly in tlie latter five cases. 

A pair of Whinchats were at a site for seven years, 
until I let a man take the nest ; thereafter the place was 
empty. The Nightjar, as I can corroborate, is known to 
nest for several years in the exact same spot if undisturbed. 
The Garden Warbler is unmistakable in returning to the 
exact S])ot ; and I have frequently located a bird b}^ my 
returning in the spring to where I had found an old nest 
in the winter. A Grasshopper Warbler has come to the 
same bush in a big waste scrub land for at least five years, 
omitting last year. And I can sa}' just the same of other 
sites of this bird, though not observed for so long. In one 
case the same bush was occupied after a skip of two years. 

With the Whitethroat I shall deal below. From 
observation of the last three species, I have come to realise 
that the return of the same birds is marked not onty by 
coming to a particular spot, but by coming at a regular 
time, regularly late or regularly early. For example, with 
these three species 1 will always at certain spots find the 
tenant when no other of its kind has arrived, and at 
other very late spots the tenant will not appear till up to 
three weeks or more later. 

The Greater Whitethroat. 

A certain number of Whitethroats come to sites by 
roads near me, but they appear to come in a regular order. 



igiS. BuRKirr. — Notes on Birds. I41 

The nest at one site for example will be well on within four 
days after the very first song has been heard in the country. 
The tenant of another site does not appear for about thirteen 
days later (though he thus risks being mateless, see below). 
Thirteen days is a long time with Whitethroats as they 
come in a wonderful rush. There is no mistaking the 
return being to the same spot ; there is the same favourite 
perch in the same bush in a hedge, or on the same identical 
inch of telegraph wire. This migration to the same site 
and at the same regularly early or late date suggests food 
for thought to those better up in migration than I am. 
Or is it already old ground ? 

I hav^e further interesting matter about the White- 
throat. In the Irish Naturalist of September, 1916, there 
was a note by me on what I then called dummy nests of 
Whitethroat and Garden Warbler. I found least year a 
male Whitethroat (A) building such a nest. That is to 
say there was no female, and when the outside frame- 
v.'ork was done he proceeded to decorate with, and pile on 
on one side masses of wool (otherwise always willow-down 
and catkin scales, see my note). About ten days after his 
frame nest had been made, eggs appeared to my surprise. 
He had found a mate ; and though it became a poor 
lopsided nest ^-et the young were brought up. I naturally 
suspected that I must have been in error about the original 
absence of a female, though I had followed the male up 
and down the hedges without a sign of her, and he showed 
the peculiarities of the lonely male builder mentioned 
below. So I waited till this year to see further. I also 
wanted to check a note in our great Ussher's book that a 
certain careful observer " invariably found the male the 
nest-builder without any assistance from the female, and 
singing as he built." From my experience of paired birds 
I found it hard to accept that. So I took pains to watch 
this year an early pair until I saw conclusively that that 
female did the building ; and I think the male does no 
building when he has a mate. 

Then I watched for my (A) bird to arrive, which he 
did on the 20th May. Five days later I found the frame 
built and decorations in progress. There was no female. 



142 The Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Xov., 

Tliese males build tlie frame in from one to one and a half 
days. It is a complete nest only that it never has the 
inside lining of fine roots or grass or hair. He kept on 
and oft at this piling of willow-down till at least the ist 
June. I found another such lonely male's nest (C) on the 
3rd June. He was also at a last year's site. It must 
have been made for some time as I had known he was there, 
and it was well decorated with the usual willow-down. 
But what was m}^ surprise to find him on the 7th with a 
second nest C2, and " curiouser " still carrying the down 
from the first to the second ; finally by the nth stripping 
the first of every speck of decoration. On the 19th June 
I found all the decoration gone from C2 — plainly to C3, 
but I did not find C3. On the 24th, however, I found 
him beginning another nest, which would be at least C4. 
On the nth June I found another male (D) building, but 
he was lucky in getting a mate soon as there was an egg 
on the I7th. On the 19th June I found another such 
nest, B, well decorated, and it must have been there a 
long time as I had known of the male's presence for long. 
On the 23rd he began another, B2. On the 24th June I 
found another m.ale (E), building. 

B2, C4, and E got little or no decoration as willow-down 
was now scarce. I was nearly tired of watching these 
various nests, but on July 3rd the bird A suddenly stopped 
the usual loud and ceaseless singing, and on July 5th I 
saw he had a mate, as I suspected. On the 7th July C 
had also got a mate, and on the same day I found B with 
four fresh eggs but laid in Bi, not B2. The singing had 
all stopped. C brought out a brood, but circumstances 
prevented my getting the nest, it was not in Ci, C2, or C4, 
though close at hand. I could not be certain about A's 
brood. The final nest was probabl}^ cut away. Ki was 
never occupied. A, B, and C thus all got mates in the 
last days of June. C2 was 20 \^ards from Ci ; C4 was 
35 yards from C2 ; B2 was 90 yards from Bi ; A, Ci, and 
C2 were in hedges ; C4, Bi, and B2, D, and E were in 
weeds or the like. 

These lonely males are most plainly distinguishable, as 
follows. They advertise their presence in the most public 



191 8. BuRKiTT. — Notes on Birds. 143 

way by singing lustily all day, with occasional rests of 
half an hour or so, and on to 9.30 p.m. from the topmost 
branches, as well as while down in the roots of a hedge, 
and in each interval between carrying building material. 
They make practically no concealment of building operations. 
There is seldom if ever any alarm or scold notes. They may 
sing even when they see one at the nest, and on one's moving 
away the building proceeds. This is all so totally different 
from when paired. They then are most wary and give 
the alarm at once. The arrival of a mate and eggs is at 
once indicated by the cessation of the song and by the 
call or the scold. 

The above, then, would explain why Mr. Ussher's 
observer invariably found the male the builder without any 
assistance from the female — there was no female. 1 may 
here say that the true female's nest has seldom a speck of 
willows-down, and if she inhabits a male's nest she removes 
as much of the decoration as she can. 

Now the birds which pair at the main arrival have 
their nests made by the end of the second or third week 
in ]\Iay and are then silent (unless for a very rare low^ half 
song when feeding young). Nevertheless the whole country 
resounds with Whitethroats' song on through June — the last 
I heard being two on July nth. I have proved abundantly, 
at least to my own satisfaction, that every one of these late 
singers is a lonely male. A, B, C were three consecutive 
birds along a road by my place, thus exemplifying the 
great number of these males. It thus appears plain that 
the whole country is swarming at the end of May and 
through June with these lonely males, and all building 
away at a series of nests. A few pick up mates compara- 
tively early, but the main body do not till the last days 
of June. The silencing of A, B, C corresponded with the 
rest of the birds in the countr}-. Where do the mates 
come from ? Well, I should guess that the late ones 
like A, B, C — apparently in large supply — come from a 
breaking up of the early pairs, as the 3^oung are seen looking 
after themselves just about the end of June. The original 
males, perhaps, being tired of married life. But where 
do the less late females come from ? Is it from a late 
female migration ? And above all, why is there such a 



144 ^^^^ Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Nov., 

huge preponderance of males after the first week or so 
from the first arrival ? 

Wren. 

The well known unlincd " Cocks " nests of the common 
Wi'en led me to expect parallel information from Saunders. 

He says of the Wren " imperfect nests are frequently 
found near an occupied one, and owing to the notion that 
they are built by the male bird for his lodging at night, 
they are commonly known as ' cocks ' nests/' I have 
had a piece of unsought-for good luck in elucidating this. 
When sheltering at a roadside on 24th May a Wren was 
building. It frequently sang, so presumably it was a 
male. He did not mind my presence at a couple of yards 
away. No alarm. No mate seen. The outside of the 
nest was formed. On the nth June, nearly three weeks 
later, there w^as no lining (of the usual feathers). Here is 
at least one proven cock's nest ; and note the exact parallel 
to Whitethroat in the manner of male and in absence of 
nest lining. On the bare chance of the parallel being 
completed by subsequent occupation of the nest, I went 
there on the 23rd July and was delighted to find that it 
had been lined, occupied, and an infertile egg left behind. 
(I have noticed this occurrence of an infertile egg in a 
couple of the late Whitethroats' nests, while the brood 
seems not five, but four, or oftener three). So that now^ 
we appear to have tlie same problems about the Wrens 
as about the Whitethroats. Is it not strange that all this 
was not known long ago about such ubi(j nitons birds ? 

Garden Warbler. 
The numerous beginnings of nests by the Garden Warbler 
(see my note, September, 1916) seem to me to be similar 
strivings by the male preparatory to the female's arrival, 
if arrive she does. It would be hard in the case of the 
Garden Warbler to prove definitely no mate, but as in 
the other cases I find he takes little notice of me, keeps 
up his singing, and makes no alarm, all of which is totalW 
opposite to v/hen the female is there. Perhaps a prepon- 
dcnrnce of males is general among our songsters, and 
accounts for the lengthened period of song to which we 
are treated. 



19 1 8. BuRKiTT. — Notes On Birds. 145 

Gadwall. 
I found on March 14th six males and four females in 
the lakes near the seashore at Mullaghmore, south of 
Donegal Bay (see map in Mr. Workman's paper on the 
Woodcock in the June /. Nat.). It was my first acquaintance 
with the bird, and I was puzzled b}^ there being no particle 
of a white wing-spot on any of the males and only on one 
of the females. On 6th April there were four of each sex 
there (presumably the same flock) all evidently paired, but 
only one of the drakes showed the white wing-spot and only 
one more of the fem.ales showed a small spot. On May 
3rd there were two pair — possibly a third, and all had 
wing-spots distinct. On the 14th May I saw none. This 
absence of the wing-spot in both sexes at certain seasons 
seems either unnoticed by or contradictory to " the books." 
As there is any amount of reeds and unwalkable swamp at 
one part of the area I had hoped they were going to breed ; 
though I had never seen them near the reed area, but 
feeding in open shallows or asleep. 

Widgeon. 
At the same place on May 22nd I was surprised to 
see a male Widgeon feeding with Shoveller and Mallard 
drakes, whose mates would be nesting in the vicinit}'. It 
was not a winged bird, and a mate might be suspected ; 
but for a casual visitor to attempt to seek for her would 
have been futile. When he was disturbed he seemed to fly 
to the hedge area and was not visible in the open. The 
keeper, Mr. Bracken, told me that a young Widgeon had 
been shot in August a couple of years ago. The place is 
full of Widgeon in the winter. For several days in August, 
but not after the i^th, I saw what was probably the same 
Widgeon. In plumage it was then distinguishable at a 
distance on the water mainly b}^ the white shoulder strip 
and glimpses of the white lower breast, and in flight by 
the white splash on the wings. 

POCHAPJD. 

On i6th August I saw at the same place one Pochard. 
During the remainder of August I could detect neither the 
Widgeon nor the Pochard, nor even any sign of comrades. 
Therefore such instances may only mean non-breeding birds. 



146 The Irish Naturalist. Oct. -Nov , 

Long-tailed Duck. 

I saw a pair apparently in full plumage on 14th March. 
They were in what is, I believe, their usual place — just 
outside the surf. T mention it because its Irish visits 
seem to be irregular and seldom in the spring. 

White-fronted Goose. 

These birds • seem commonly grazing at Mullaghmore 
and if risen from one spot fly to another. There were 
three on the 14th May and the keeper says the 20th is his 
latest observation. These correspond to the ver}^ latest 
cases heard of by Mr. Ussher. 

Brent Goose. 

On 3rd May one of these birds grazing in the open let 
me get within 44 yards. 

White Wagtail. 

On 3rd May I saw three birds at this place, very tame ; 
two of which seemed paired. On the 14th I saw one male 
near the same spot. With the usual perversity, the bird 
disappeared at the only moment I took my glasses off it. 
I therefore dare not suggest breeding. 

Dunlin and Turnstone flocking with Golden Plover. 

Ussher mentions " an instance " of Dunlin flying with 
Golden Plover. At this place I have often seen the Dunlin 
with them, as regular companions and disappearing with 
them into the clouds. I saw Turnstone as similar 
companions, and though not feeding when on the grass, 
thev came and went with the Plover. The Dunlin is the 
only bird I know which will place its nest on ground so 
frequently flooded that the grass is quite short and much 
discoloured. 

OUAIL. 

I find that last year in the south ol this county in a 
district of much low-lying meadow land and cut-awa}^ bog 
Quails came in great numbers and could be heard everywhere. 
The rote was heard a couple of times this year and the 
same about six years ago ; otherwise they have not been 
known for thirty years when they were often shot. I 
have no acquaintance with the bird. 



igiS. BURKITT. — Notes On Birds. 147 

Swallow. 

Was the Swallow extraordinary late elsewhere as here ? 
Though I saw one on the 4th April and another on the 
13th, there was no real arrival till the last day of April. 
Its complete absence alter the Corncrake and Cuckoo had 
come was very remarkable. 

Grasshopper Warbler. 

I noted in the /. NM. of October, 19 17, the peculiar 
complete absence here in 1917 of this bird. I have had 
further confirmation in respect to this county. Mr. Moffat 
suggested to me that as with him it might be disappearing 
from diminution of suitable habitat. But our disappearance 
was too sudden. I wish there had been some other notes 
from Ireland, because this vear the bird is back in full force. 
This bird at the arrival period niakes itself very evident, 
so that to a bird-observer it can hardly be missed. At 
that period it sings freel}^ at all hours of the day as well 
as at night, and at all kinds of places wiiich are not its 
permanent abode. You next hear them singing at suitable 
sites, but m}^ experience is that out of half a dozen singers 
only a couple seem to sta}-, unless it be that the mated 
birds soon cease to sing. I have often noticed that the 
song is kept up on disturbance, like the Sedge Warbler. 
1 have watched the male rise and sing out of a very low bed 
of dead brambles only about eight yards by tw^o, and as I 
went to one end and beat it with a stick he crept and sang 
at the other. Quick as I ran from point to point, he 
seemed to enjoy the game and sang away, quite outlasting 
me. 

With reference to the exterminating winter of 1916-17 
I have now and again seen the Gold-crest, but the Long- 
tailed Tit seems the worst hit. I have only seen one pair 
in the past eighteen months. In reference to Mr. Abbot's 
note in the Irish Naturalist for Ma}^ (supra p. 79), I did 
not notice a single Fieldfare last winter. 

Enniskillen, 



148 The Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Nov., 

DERC-FERNA : THE CAVE OF DUNMORE. 

BY R. LLOYD PRAEGER. 

A GOOD many years ago — in 1901, to be precise — Prof. 
Haddon, Prof. H. J. Seymour, Mr. J. N. Halbert and I 
spent a December day in exploring the Cave of Dunmore. 
Our intention at the time was to make a complete survey, 
including a map, an account of the cave fauna, and a report 
on the human remains, to the abundance of which previous 
writers have drawn attention. With reference to the last 
item, Prof. Haddon examined the remains which strew the 
floor of the cave in several parts, but could come to no 
definite conclusion regarding them. As to the cave fauna. 
Mr. Halbert and Prof. Carpenter have published already 
anything there was to be said. An accurate map of the 
cave could not be completed on one visit. There remains 
an account of the history of the cave which I wrote at 
the time, and which, as it has a certain permanent interest, 
is printed here. 

The Cave of Dunmore, which lies six miles due north 
of the City of Kilkenny, has a literary history which carries 
us far behind the era of scientific cave-hunting. In the 
" Annals of the Four Masters," under date A.C. 928, we 
read : — 

Godfrey, grandson of Imhar, with the foreigners of Ath-Cliath [Dublin], 
demolished and plundered Dearc Fearna, where one thousand persons 
were killed in this year, as is stated in this quatrain : — 

Nine hundred years without sorrow, twenty-eight it has been proved, 
Since Christ came to our relief, to the plundering of Dearc Fearna. 

And again, in the ancient Irish " Triads " as edited and 
translated b}^ Kuno Meyer, ^ which enumerate, among 
proverbs and wise sayings, three of each of the most 
remarkable natural or artificial objects in Erin, it is stated 
that the three " dark places " of Ireland are Uam Chnogba, 
IJam Slangae, Derce Ferna. We have the authority of 

1 R. I. Academy, Todd Lecture Series, xiii., 1906, p. 4, 



i9i8. Praeger. — Derc-Ferna: The Cave of Dimmore. 149 

O'Donovan/ Wilde,^ and Joyce^ for identifying the Dearc 
Fearna, or Cave of Alders, of the above MSS., with what 
is now commonly named the Cave of Dunmore ; it is 
important to note that those who should know best — the 
local peasantry — still call this cavern by its ancient 
designation — Dearc Fearna. An interesting reference to 
the cave occurs in Broccan's Poem in the " Book of 
Leinster " : — Ro shaltair for in luchthigern i ndorus derci 
Ferna : the full passage in English reads as follows* : — 

Aithbel, she was a jewel of a worn ui, mother of Ercoil, the wife of Midgna, 
Who killed the ten Fomorians in the strand at Tonn Chlidna, 
Who burned the seven wild men in the glen at Sliabh Eibhlenn, 
Who scattered the black fleet against which the men of Ireland failed, 
Who hunted the red bag that drowned her in the midst of the Barrow, 
Who trampled on the luchthigern in the door of Derc Ferna.^ 

The luchthigem, " lord of the mice " which this formidable 
person treated so badly was a gigantic cat that lived in 
the Cave of Dunmore, and of whose prowess wonderful tales 
are told ; a Sabre-toothed Tiger could scarcely have been 
more terrible. 

From these references belonging to the period of tradition 
we pass somewhat abruptly to those of the period of 
scientific observation. In the year 1709, Dr. Thomas 
Molyneux, well known in connection with his discourse 
on the " Irish Elk," visited the cave, and his picturesque 
description, as preserved in his journal, was long afterwards 
given to the world by the Kilkenny Archaeological Society 
(11). Dr. Molyneux was much struck with the 
" dreadfull Romantick appearance " of the entrance ; and 
well describes how " from the top the water distilling in a 
1,000 places, and trickling down the sides, was petrified, so 
that the inside of ye Cave is almost entirely covered with 



1 " Annals of the Four Masters," loc. cit. ^ " Beauties of the Boyne 
and Blackwater," p. 150, 1850. ^ " Irish Names of Places," 2nd ed. 
I., p. 437, 1895. 

^ See T. O'N. Russell : Fiov Chlairseach na h'Eireann : " The True 
Harp of Erin," pp. 121, 125 ; 1900. 

^ Mr. Russell translated this " Cave of Ferns " ; but Dr. Joyce informed 
me there can be no doubt that the reference is to the Cave of Dunmore. 

B 



150 The Irish Naturalist. Oct Nov., 

this petrifu'd substance." He mentions a colony of Rabbits 
ill tliat part of tlic cave which is still called the Rabbit 
Burrow ; and describes the bottom of the well, and the 
adjoining part of the cave beyond the Rabbit Burrow, as 
being " full of human bones, but especially the well, in 
which there are several skulls " — the first reference to the 
abundant human remains that so much exercise the minds 
of the later writers. 

The next reference to the cave which we find is in an 
anonymous pamphlet entitled " A Tour through Ireland, 
in several Entertaining Letters . . . ." Dublin, 1746 (17) ; 
written as we learn from the Advertisement, by " two 
English gentlemen." These visitors surpass Dr. Molyneux 
in thrilling description. The approach to the cave is 
guarded by 

" a monstrous Flight of different Species of Birds, whose Numbers darken 
the Air as you come near the Mouth, and their different Voices seemed 
to tell us we were going to view something extraordinary, . . . When 
you enter the Mouth, a sudden Chilness seizes all parts of the body, and 
a Dimness surrounded our lights, as if the Place was filled with a thick 
Fog. . . . Our Faces, through this Gloom, looked as if we were a 
Collection of Ghosts, and the Lights in our Hands seemed as if we were 
making a Visit to the infernal Shades. . . . The Shining of the 
petrified water (for I think we may justly call it so) forms so many 
different Objects, that it is not unpleasing ; and by the Help of a little 
Imagination, we might make out Organ pipes. Pillars, Cilinders, Pyramids 
inverted, and ten thousand various Things in Art. ... In several 
Places were Skulls and human Bones, as it were set in this crystalline 
Substance, . . . We were informed, that two miles from the Mouth 
was a Well of Wonders ; but indeed, my Lord, none of us had Curiosity 
or Courage enough to travel so far. , . . When we came out, we 
thought we had abandoned the Regions of the Dead, to draw the Air 
of Paradise. They tell you many romantick Legends of this Cave." 

The next visitor who recorded his impressions was 
Adam Walker, physicist, lecturer, and inventor, who 
explored the cave in 1771, and thought it of sufficient 
interest to form the subject of a letter to Charles Morton, 
then Secretary of the Royal Society, who had it duly 
published in the Philosophical Trmisactions (19). Compared 
to the graphic and enthusiastic outbursts of previous writers, 
Mr, Walker's account is somewhat wanting in imagination, 



igiS. Praeger. — Derc-Ferna : The Cave oj Dunmore. 151 

though he rises to the occasion when he speaks of the 
spectator standing in the cave as " in the mouth of a huge 
wild beast, with ten thousand teeth above his head, and 
as many under his feet." His suggestion that the statactitic 
deposits are formed by the evaporation of water charged 
with carbonate of hme show that we are approaching the 
period of unromantic modern science. Colonies of Pigeons 
and Jackdaws are mentioned as inhabitmg the cave, and 
" the bones of at least a hundred of the human race " 
were seen in the cavern. The fossils of the Carboniferous 
limestone are described, with the assurance that they are 
" real shells " ; and with a hint that he has further notes 
of the kind for this " respectable Society," the writer 
remains your most obedient humble servant. 

An anonymous work entitled " A Trip to Kilkenny from 
Durham by way of Whitehaven and DubHn, in the year 
1776," (18) the writer describes the cave merely from 
hearsay, and without adding anything to our knowledge. 

Much less appreciative than Adam Walker is Thomas 
Campbell, who published " A Philosophical Survey of the 
South of Ireland " in 1778 (2). " Even beauties too highly 
extolled, before you see them, seldom answer your expecta- 
tions. I will not, however, rank this among beautiful 
objects, for to me it had nothing to recommend it." He 
began the descent to the cave's mouth, but finding it " damp 
and slippery," returned, and held the horses while his 
servant explored the cavern. " I cannot conceive that 
the exhibition would rew^ard the trouble. Do not, however, 
imagine that I lost my day with this bawble." 

William Tighe, commissioned by the Dublin Society to 
report on Co. Kilkenny under their '' Statistical Surveys " 
scheme (16) publishes his observations in 1802, and briefly 
describes the cavern. He gives the English, Irish, and 
Latin names of the plants which festoon the entrance, 
mentions the wild pigeons, the human remains, stating that 
some of the skulls found were enveloped in calcareous 
spar ; he wonders that the stalagmitic deposits are not 
worked up into ornaments, and refers to the occurrence of 
clay coloured by carbon. 

'The " Post Chaise Companion," 3rd. ed., ? 1806 (13) 

b2 



152 ^^*^ Irisli NafuYalisi. Oct. -Nov., 

mentions the cave, the description being a hash-up of the 
accounts of older writers, made without acknowledgment 
or personal knowledge, in true guide-book style. 

In 1825 the Cave of Dunmore makes, so far as I am 
aware, its first and last appearance in fiction. In " Crohoore 
of the Billhook," by Michael Banim (1), part-author of the 
well-known Tales by the " O'Hara Family," Chapter viii. 
opens W'ith a description of the cavern, and closes with a 
tragedy perpetrated in its depths. 

In the Dublin Philosophical Journal and Scientific 
Review for February, 1826 (8), John Hart, first restorer of 
the skeleton of the " Irish Elk," publishes the first accurate 
description of the cave, with measurements. He found 
abundance of human bones, but none of any other animal — 
not even of the Rabbits, which still colonize the earthy 
floor. He points out that the burying ground of the 
Church of Mothel stands within sixty perches of the entrance, 
and believes that the human remains were washed into the 
cave from that spot. 

Thomas Kitson Cromwell, in his anonymous work 
" Excursions through Ireland," vol. iii., 1828 (3), considers 
the cave as " somewhat too greatly celebrated " ; he failed 
to see all the wonders of the " Post-Chaise Companion," 
but mentions that the extent of " this excavation " is such 
that there English olftcers, venturing in without guides, 
were lost there for twenty-four hours, till finally rescued by 
their friends. 

The Dublin Penny Journal, storehouse of local descrip- 
tion, publishes in 1832 (12) the first illustration of the cave, 
a wood-cut portraying the entrance, with a description 
(over the signature " P "), which is mainly a quotation 
from " Crohoore of the Billhook." 

The next notice of the cave will be found in the 
Proceedings of the Geological Society of Dubhn for 1848 
(10), where the President, Robert Mallet, discusses the 
composition of the stalagmites, pointing out the existence 
in them of phosphoric acid, and the fact that between 
the layers fine bands of charcoal occur. 

On March 31st, 1854, Mr. J. G. Robertson read a paper 
on Dunmore Cave before the Kilkenny Literary and 



igiS. Prarger- ~D ere- F erna : The Cave of Dunmore. 153 

Scientific Institution (14), his communication consisting 
mainly of notes made by Mr. William Robertson, architect, 
some years previously. The discussion on the paper having 
brought out the fact that these notes referred only to the 
eastern (southern or Market Cross) branch of the cave, the 
northern or Rabbit Burrow branch, in which the well 
and human bones are found, was visited by Mr. J. G. 
Robertson in company with Rev. James Graves, late Bishop 
of Limerick, and Mr. John G. A. Prim, and the results of 
their exploration appear in a supplementary paper read 
on April 28th (15). Both papers fortunatety achieved 
publication by the agency of the Natural History Review. 
Though fully describing the cavern, they do not throw 
much new light on the scientific aspect of the subject ; 
according to the testimony of these observers, the human 
bones occur only in that part of the northern chamber 
which is close to the well. 

We next come to the most important paper which has 
been published either on the cave or on its human remains. 
Dr. Arthur W^ynne Foot visited the spot on September 
loth, 1869, in company with Rev. James Graves and Mr. 
Peter Burtchaell, explored the cave, and collected and 
brought away a large quantity of bones, which, having 
been named, were duly deposited in the museum of the 
Kilkenny Archaeological Society. His observations appear 
in the Society's Journal for the following 3^ear (4). After 
giving an excellent review of the literature of the subject, 
with quotations from some of the earlier writers of greater 
length than the exigencies of space allow me to make here, 
Dr. Foot fully describes both branches of the cave. No 
living animal of any description was observed of the several 
that have been recorded, from Rabbits down to Acarinae, 
but he recommends a thorough zoological exploration. In 
the following sentence he gives a useful hint : — "A very 
small bo3^ who accompanied us was of the greatest use, as 
he acted like an inverted chimney sweep ; squeezing his 
body through crevices impassable to others, he and his 
light could be seen through the chinks of the rocky floor, 
working away underneath us." Large quantities of human 
bones were collected from the soil about the pool, the 



154 ^^ Irish Naturalist. ' Oct.-Nov., 

guides showing none of the usual compunction in disturbing 
the remains, protesting that people who could frequent 
such a place must have been " worse nor haythens " ; 113 
bones were thus obtained, and carefully catalogued in the 
paper. Bones of pig, sheep, lamb, goat, cow and calf 
were also identified, but the fact that they were all found 
near the entrance, and that immature bones were in a 
considerable proportion, renders it probable that they 
belonged to animals which had wandered or fallen into the 
cave in comparatively recent times. Dr. Foot then enters 
very fully into the question of the human remains, and 
inclines to the view that they are of great antiquity, probably 
representing the massacre recorded in the " Annals of the 
Four Masters " in A.D. 928. 

Lastly, in 1875, Mr. Edward T. Hardman of the 
Geological Survey read a paper on the cave before the 
Royal Irish Academy (6), in which he records the occurrence 
of further deposits of bones in the cave ; this paper is a 
very valuable contribution to our knowledge of the cavern. 
The well-known bone-bed is near the well at the extremity 
of the " Rabbit Burrow " ; the new deposits discovered 
by Mr. Hardman and lieut. Smith are beside the beautiful 
statactitic pillar called the " Market Cross." In all cases 
Mr. Hardman finds that the remains occur in layers of 
silt, sand, and stalagmite ; in the newly-found deposit, 
the human bones belonged largely to children and infants, 
and were mixed with those of pig, and of sheep or goat. 
Mr. Hardman believes that the bones and the stratified 
material in which they occur were brought down by water 
from higher chambers of the cave, the entrances to which 
they now cover, and that the bones are at least as old as 
the Danish invasion recorded by the Four Masters, perhaps 
much older. Mr. Hardman's valuable paper is illustrated 
by a plate on which appear a sketch of the " Market Cross," 
and rough plan and sections of the cave — the first and 
last attempt at mapping it. 

In the Geological Survey's " Explanatory Memoir on 
the Geology of the Eeinster Coal-field" (7) published in 
1881, Mr. Hardman briefly recapitulates the facts given in 
his paper above-mentioned, and adds, on a larger scale, 



igiS. Fraeger- Derc-Ferna : The Cave of Dunmore. 155 

the sketch of the " Market Cross " pubHshed therewith. 
This is the last reference to the cave in scientific hterature. 

The latest scientific explorers of the Cave of Dunmore 
were Prof. A. C. Haddon, Prof. H. J. Seymour, Mr. J. N. 
Halbert, and myself. We werTt to Kilkenny on the after- 
noon of December ist, 1901, and devoted the next day to 
examining the cavern. The preceding" week had been one 
of almost incessant rain, and we anticipated a very wet 
and muddy task. To our great surprise, the cave was 
exceedingty dry ; and in the few places where water was 
dripping, the dense deposit of fresh stalagmite showed 
that the drip was perennial. 

The cave is situated on elevated ground overlooking 
the Dinin River, between Kilkenny and Castlecomer, on a 
tongue-shaped inlier of Carboniferous limestone, with Coal- 
measures all around. As described by previous writers, 
the entrance is not conspicuous, and though we knew we 
were within a couple of hundred yards, we found it a saving 
of time to ask our way. The entrance is highly picturesque. 
The steep semi-circular slope is tenanted by ancient Elders, 
beneath which is a wonderfully luxuriant growth of Golden 
Saxifrage. This half -cone faces a vertical wall of rock 
which rises above the mouth, adorned with Ivy, Hawthorn 
and Hazel. The Ivy, trailing down over the mouth in 
long streamers, forms a green veil of much beauty which, 
as viewed from above, almost closes the entrance. Around 
the mouth, the rocks are draped with an exquisite growth 
of Hart's-tongues, many being multifid and crested, and all 
having unusually wavy margins, recalling the var. crisp itm. 
Inside the entrance, a litter of twigs and wool showed that 
the Jackdaws referred to by previous writers still hold their 
ground ; but not a bird was seen, and we could not decide 
whether the Rock Pigeons also are still there. The main 
cave plunges straight down in a uniform slope to its 
extremity, the floor being formed of a talus of unknown 
depth. On the left near the entrance is the wide recess 
in which are situated the steep and narrow entrances to 
both the Rabbit Burrow and Market Cross branches. We 
first explored the Rabbit Burrow branch. A steep ascent 
through a chimney-like opening led into a long chamber 



156 The Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Nov., 

of rectangular section, from which an ascent brought us 
into a \'ery fine chamber with a high dome-shaped roof 
which we named " Haddon Hall." The floor was formed 
of great fallen blocks, concealing the true floor of the cavern, 
which was probably ten or thirteen feet below. A steep 
descent over stalagmite succeeded. On the right hand 
(east) wall is a handsome veil of stalagmite, and over this 
is the entrance of an unexplored branch ; without a ladder 
this could not be reached. The descent leads to " the 
Well " mentioned by all the writers, and around this the 
remarkably abundant human remains for which the cave 
has long been famous have been mostly found. Beyond, 
the ground rises again over stalagmite and finally the cave 
dwindles into a low passage of wedge-shaped section, which 
narrows vertically until roof and floor meet. At this end 
we commenced operations, Mr. Seymour and I mapping 
the cave, and making halts while he took photographs ; 
Prof. Haddon examining the human remains, and helping 
I\Ir. Halbert, who diligently searched for cave-animals. In 
a hollow near the extremity, where the height of the cave 
was only about three feet, we found a quantity of human 
bones ; this site has not been previously noted. By the 
time we had mapped and photographed the Rabbit Burrow 
— in which no trace of Rabbits, or of their holes, is now 
to be seen — and collected samples of the stalactites, 
stalagmites, clay and sands, and of the minute cave-animals, 
we were hot, dirty and hungry, and lunch in the main cave 
was a welcome respite. We then hastened to make a 
rough examination of the Market Cross or southern branch. 
This is reached by a steep rough ascent. Beyond, it 
widens and the roof rises, till at the extremit}/ it is a noble 
chamber. The Market Cross, so often described, is a 
stalagmitic pillar of great beauty. The floor around is 
extremely irregular, covered with huge blocks of rock, 
between which one can let oneself down to the true floor, 
and crawl along it underneath the superincumbent chaos 
of fallen rocks. On this floor human remains were to be 
found abundantly. Crevices in the end wall of this chamber 
open into the lofty roof of the extremity of the main cave, 
and we could look down sixty or seventy feet through the 



igi8. Praeger. — Derc-Ferna : The Cave of Dunnwrc. 157 

dim green twilight to the sloping floor far below. All too 
soon our time was exhausted, and without being able to 
property map this portion of the cave we had to leave. 
Photographs of the Market Cross were attempted, and 
Mr. Halbert much enriched his collections from the damp 
floor around. Then we climbed the steep slope of the 
main chamber into the waning daylight, rapidly descended 
the hill to where our car was waiting for us, and at 10 p.m. 
were once more in Dublin. 



Bibliography. 

1. Banim (Michael) : Crohoore of the Billhook, chap. viii. 1825 (first 

edition). 

2. [Campbell (Thomas)] : A Philosophical Survey of the South of 

Ireland, in a series of letters to John Watkinson, M.D. pp. 106-7. 
8vo. Dublin, 1778. 

3. [Cromwell (Thomas)] : Excursions through Ireland., vol. iii., p. 58. 

i2mo., London, 1828. 

4. Foot (Arthur Wynne), M.D. : An account of a visit to the Cave 

of Dunmore, with some remarks on human remains found therein. 
Journ. Royal Hist, and Arch. Assoc, of Ireland, 4th ser,, vol. i., 
pt. I, pp. 65-94. 1870. 

5. Griffith (Richard), F.R.S. : [I have a note that this writer has 

referred to the Cave of Dunmore in one of his papers, but cannot 
find the reference. If any reader can supply information I shall 
welcome it]. 

6. Hardman (Edward T.) : On two new Deposits of human and other 

Bones, discovered in the Cave of Dunmore, Co. Kilkenny. Proc. 
R.I. A., ser. 2, vol. ii. (Science), pp. 168-176, plate 18. 1875. 

7. Ibid. : Explanatory Memoir on the Geology of the Leinster Coalfield, 

to accompany parts of sheets 127, 128, 136, 137, 145, 146, 147, 
155, 156, and 166 of the Geological Survey of Ireland . . 
pp. 10- II. 8vo,, Dublin, 1881. 

8. Hart (John) : Notice concerning Human Bones found in the 

Limestone Cave of Dunmore Park, in the County of Kilkenny, 
Dublin Phihsophical Journal and Scientific Review [vol. i.l, No. 3, 
February, 1826, pp. 88-92. 

g. Kinahan (John Robert) : Three days among the bats in Clare. 
Pfoc. Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. iii., pp. 96 (1859) i860. 

10. Mallet (Robert), Ph.D. : On some Stalagmites from the Cave of 
Dunmore, County of Kilkenny. Journ. Geol. Soc. Dublin, vol. iii,; 
pp. 262-3 (1848) 1849. 



158 The Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Nov., 

11. MoLYNEUX (Thomas), M.D. : A Journey to Kilkenny in the year 

1709. From the MS. notes of Dr. Thomas Molyneux [MS. in 
T.C.D,]. Edited by Rev. James Graves. Joiirn. Kilkenny and 
S.E. of I. Archaeol. Assoc, N.S. iii., pp. 296-303. 1860-1. 

12. P. : The Cave of Dunmore. Dublin Penny Journal, vol. i,, pp. 73-4. 

1832. 

13. The Post-chaise Companion ; or Traveller's Directory through 

Ireland, pp. 322-3. 3rd ed. Svo. Dublin [1806 or later]. 

14. Robertson (J. G.) : Cave of Dunmore [paper read before the Kilkenny 

Lit. and Scient. Institution, 31st March, 1854]. Nat. Hist. 
Review, vol. i., pp. 169-73. 1854. 

15. J bid. : The Cave of Dunmore [suppl. paper, read 28th April, 1854], 

Nat. Hist. Review, vol. i., pp. 174-6. 1854. 

16. TiGHE (William) : Statistical Observations relative to the County 

of Kilkenny, made in the years 1800 and 1801, pp. 107-9. Svo. 
Dubhn, 1802. 

17. A Tour through Ireland, in several Entertaining Letters . . . 

[by " two English gentlemen "J. Part i, pp. 192-5. 8vo. Dublin, 
1746. 

18. A Trip to Kilkenny from Durham by way of Whitehaven and 

Dublin, in the year 1776. [Referred toby Eoot (4) : I have not 
been able to see this in Dublin]. 

19. Walker (Adam) : A letter to Charles Morton, M.D., Sec. R. S., from 

Mr. Adam Walker ; containing an account of the Cavern of Dunmore 
Park, near Kilkenny, in Ireland. Phil. Trans., vol. Ixiii., part i, 
pp. 16-19 (1771) 1773- 

To the above the three early MS. notices quoted on p. 148-9 must be 
added to make the list of references complete, and a lev.^ guide-book 
notices totally devoid of interest. Three vague references I have not 
succeeded in hunting down : — Tighe (16) says that a notice of the cave 
appeared in the London Magazine ; Hardman (6) mentions that Rev. 
James Graves informed him that Bishop Berkeley was the earliest writer 
on the cave ; and Richard Griffith's reference, I have not succeeded in 
finding. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gifts include a Vervct Monkey from Lt, H. P. Murphy, three 
Cavies and some fancy Mice from Mr. W. D. Freeman, a Belgian " Hare " 
from Sir F. Shaw, three Rabbits from Mr. H. Hammond, a Blue-fronted 
Amazon Parrot from Mr. G. MTldowie, a Barn-Owl from Mrs. Moran, 
a Golden Eagle from Mr. R. Berkeley, four Kestrels from Lord Decies. 
and a Glaucous Gull from Mrs. Wallace. A Zebu Calf and two Lion 
Cubs (parents " Oseni " and " Sheila ") have been born in the Gardens, 



igiS, Irish Societies. 159 



BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

May 18. — Excursion to Saintfield, — Under the leadership of S. A. 
Bennett, the party visited the church and then walked through the 
demesne of Saintfield House, by permission of Mrs. Blackwood-Price. 
Returning through Saintfield a quarry in the Silurian grits was visited— 
good examples of shearing and slickensides being exposed there. The 
party then proceeded to Rowallane, kindly thrown open by Mr. H. 
Armytage Moore. The rock garden, just in its prime, was a blaze of 
colour. In addition to the plants in the rock garden there were many 
other species of interest to botanists, the Rhododendrons being particularly 
tine. The party was unusually large, 122 members and friends gathering 
at Rowallane where tea was served. A vote of thanks to Mr. and Mrs. 
Armytage-Moore terminated the usual business meeting at which six 
new members were elected. The only wild plant seen of note was the 
Adder's Tongue, Ophioglossitm vulgatiim. 

June i. — Excursion to the Giant's Ring.— Fifty-four members 
and friends met the conductor (W. B. Burrowes) at Malone tram terminus 
and walked to the Giant's Ring. Mr. Burrowes explained to the party 
the recent research work carried out under the auspices of the Belfast 
Natural History and Philosophical Society at this important monument. 
A further walk of two miles brought the party to Drurabo, in the grave- 
yard of which the ruins of a round lower remain. Mr. R. May described 
the origin and uses of these early Christian bell-houses. After tea the 
usual business meeting of the Club was held, the President (A. MT. 
Cleland) in the chair. Two new members were elected. 

The botanists found Drumbo Glen interesting — Melica itniflora and 
Polystichmn aculeatmn being noted ; also a fine plant of Vicia sepimn 
with pure white flowers. Ulex Gallii was observed growing in a hedge 
on the road coming from Farrell's Fort. 

June 15. — Excursion to Muckamore. — About twenty members and 
friends travelled by the 2 p.m. train to Muckamore. A walk of about 
two miles brought the party to Muckamore Abbey, where, by the kind 
permission of Captain Thompson, the party visited the historic grounds. 
Muckamore House occupies the site of the ancient priory. A small 
portion of the ruins of the Abbey are still standing outside the garden 
wall. Muckamore, one of the most celebrated monasteries in the diocese 
of Connor, was founded by St. Colman Ela, late in the sixth century. 
His mother was a sister of St. Columbkille. Mr. R. May then gave a 
short historical account of the Abbey. The party, by the kind permission 
of Major Maxwell, also visited the grounds of the Model Farm. 

June 29. — Excursion to Comber and Rough Island. — The party 
of about twenty-four members arrived at Comber at 2.20 p.m., and, 
under the conductorship of the Rev. K. Dunbar, proceeded to the Comber 
River and to the shore half a mile from Island Hill. The estuarine marsh 
afforded a good field for the botanists. Among the plants noted wer 
Spergularia mpestris, Apiimi gvaveolens, Samolus Valevandi, Suaeda 



i6o The IrisJi Naturalist. Oct. -Nov., 

viaritima, Polygonum maculaium, and Salicornia herbacea. The weather 
during the afternoon was perfect. On the shore near Castle Espic a 
Hock of over thirty swans was seen. N. H. Foster reported a bird hst 
of thirty-one species. The most interesting ornithological feature was 
the observation of the Stonechat (one female seen), as the severe winter 
of 1916-17 had exterminated this species in some districts in Ireland 
[vide Irish Naturalist, vol. xxvi.]. The four common species of woodlice 
were found Tea was served in a field at Island Hill at 4.30. Owing to 
the tide being full it was found impossible to visit Rough Island. Those 
of the party who remained till the late train had an enjoyable walk back 
to Comber by way of the fields through Cherryvalley. 

July 27. — Excursion to Raughlan. — Under the conductorship of 
S. 'Si. Macoun the members travelled by the lo.o o'clock train to Lurgan 
and drove to Raughlan, where the day was spent on the shore of Lough 
Neagh. Before leaving Raughlan the President, A. McI. Cleland, thanked 
Miss Forde for permission to visit the demesne, after which the party 
drove back to Lurgan. After tea two members were elected. Several 
of the rarer or local species of plants were noted, but the most interesting 
botanical find fell to the conductor, who first detected Spiranthes Romanz- 
offiana growing in a dry meadow close to the shore. Collections of 
invertebrates were made in several groups which, when worked out, will 
be published in the Club's Proceedings. 

August 10. — Excursion to Banks of the Lagan from Shaw's Bridge 
to Drumbeg. A party of thirty members met, and as the district is one 
peculiarly rich in plant life the botanists were soon hard at work, the 
following among other plants being noted : — Ceterach officinarum, Hyperi- 
cum quadrangulum, Butomus ztmbellatus, Lycopus europaeus. Nasturtium 
amphibium, Lycium barbarum and Equisetum hyemale. On reaching 
Drumbeg tea was served in the Parochial Hall. From the church the 
members proceeded to view the grounds of Drum House, which had been 
very courteously thrown open by the owner. Sir Samuel R. Keightley. 
Here the party separated, some returning to town by the road, some by 
the river. 



DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

June i. — Excursion to Killiney Bay. — Eighteen members and 
visitors took part, the interest being mainly geological. From Dalkcy 
at 2.30 p.m. the party walked via Coliemore and Sorrento to the junction 
of the Ordovician slates with the Leinster granite on the sea-shore, when 
the President (J. de W. Hinch), who acted as conductor, gave an account 
of the metamorphism produced in sedimentary rocks of the local Ordo- 
vician slates by the injection of the molten igneous granite. The mica- 
schist of the district, with its characteristic minerals, andalusite and 
chiastolite, was then examined, and from the adjoining granite specimens 



igiS. Irish Societies. i6i 

of plumose mica were obtained. A short account of the Glacial deposits 
as developed at the northern end of Killiney was also given. At a short 
business meeting, the President in the chair, INIrs. Colles JNIoore and Miss 
Emma Barton were elected members of the Club. After tea many members 
wandered along the shore as the weather was brilliantly fine, and did not 
return to town until late in the evening. 

June 29, — Excursion to Portrane. — The members left Amiens Street 
by the 1.50 p.m. train, twenty-two taking part in the visit, many no doubt 
attracted by the brilliant sunshine of the day. Owing to the much- 
regretted indisposition of Mr. N. Colgan, who was to have been the con- 
ductor, the leadership of the excursion devolved upon the President 
(J. de W. Hinch) and the Hon. Secretary (Mrs. Long). At Donabate the 
lane and field track to Balcarrick and the Island were taken, and here the 
party was joined by Mr. Launcelot Smith, of Beaverstown House, Dona- 
bate, whose very extensive knowledge of the geology of the peninsula 
made him virtual conductor during the remainder of the afternoon. When 
the shore had been reached near Balcarrick, a section of the excursion 
turned northwards to obtain specimens of the famous Lambay porphyry, 
while the remainder of the party scattered over the Island studying the 
sand-dune flora so well developed there. Near Corballis at 5 o'clock, tea 
was made by members carrying from town most of their own supplies. 
The party then walked along the northern shore of Malahide Creek, and 
had the opportunity of examining the excellent sections of Boulder-clay 
exposed here. From these sections the President obtained a number of 
shell-fragments and northern erratics (chalk, flints, granites). At Cor- 
ballis House a field track brought the party back to Donabate, where the 
6.19 p.m. train was taken to Dublin after a most enjoyable and profitable 
afternoon. 

July 13. — Excursion to Hollybrook Demesne, Bray. — Under very 
favourable weather conditions twenty members and visitors took part in 
this outing. Leaving Harcourt Street by the 12.35 train for Bray, the 
party proceeded along the Glen of the Downs road to the near gate of 
Hollywood, a well-wooded demesne on the northern slope of the Little 
Sugar-loaf, belonging to Sir Robert Hodson, Bart., who had kindly given 
permission to see all parts of the grounds. Here Prof. Henry, M.A., F.L.S., 
acting as conductor, pointed out many remarkable trees, including some 
splendid and very old beech, silver fir, spruce, and Scots pine, the latter 
of unusual beauty and dimensions. Many comparatively rare conifers 
were represented by fine specimens as Deodar, Cttpvessus sempervirens, 
C. iondosa and C. funehris, Cryptomeria japonica, Tsuga A Ibertiana and 
Pinus Pinea. Some curious old yews and evergreen oaks were noted and 
a grafted specimen of the Madeira Holly was worthy of inspection. A 
natural birch wood, which sprang up in a clearing made by the storm of 
1903, presented many features of interest. Leaving Hollybrook, the 
party proceeded to Kilmacanogue, where tea was taken, after which 
a small party under the guidance of the President (J. de W. Hinch), 
walked up the Rocky Valley to Killough. 



i62 The Irish Naturalist. Oct.-Nov., 



OBITUARY. 

ALICE SCHARFF. 

With deep regret we announce to our readers the death of Mrs. R. 
F. Scharff, which took place on August 15th, after a very short illness. 
The younger daughter of the late L. O. Hutton, she was married to Dr. 
Scharff in 1889, and devoted herself zealously to helping his zoological 
studies both as collector and writer. She shared particularly his keen 
interest in the Irish Naturalist, and rendered no small service to the 
Magazine by compiling the twenty-five years' autho-rindex that formed 
the concluding number of the volume for 1916. 



ARTHUR B. E. H1LLA5. 

The scientific institutions of Ireland have suffered yet a further loss 
in the death of A. B. E. Hillis, Junior Inspector of Fisheries, who received 
a commission in the Gordon Highlanders early in the war, and had risen 
to the rank of Captain. He proved himself an exceptionally capable 
officer : "a splendid soldier keenly interested in the welfare of his men," 
was the testimony of his colonel. He was reported " wounded and 
missing " on the western front in April, 1917, but not till the spring of 
this year was it certified that he had given his life. Born in Co. Sligo 
in 1876, Hillas was educated at St. Columba's, the High School, and 
Trinity College, where he took a Senior Moderatorship in 189S. Two 
years later he joined the scientific staff of the Irish Fisheries Office, where, 
imtil the outbreak of the war in 191 4, he took an active part in the 
observational and experimental work on the life-history and migration 
of food-fishes, devising a new method of marking Salmon smolts. The 
results of this work and also a series of Eel-fry records made by him 
were published in the Scientific Investigations of the Irish Fisheries Office. 



NOTES. 

W. H. Harvey and Charles Darwin. 

Shortly after the publication of the " Origin of Species " Prof. Harvey 
read before the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association 
(on 17th February, i860) a paper entitled " AJGuess at the Probable Origin 
of the Human Animal considered by the light of Mr. Darwin's Theory of 
Natural Selection, and in opposition to Lamarck's notion for a Monkey 
Parentage," which was subsequently printed for private circulaticn under 
a slightly emended title. In this he expresses disbelief in the efficacy 
of natural selection in the production of species, and indeed gently ridi- 
cules the whole theory, Darwin seemed disappointed that a man of Har- 



i9i8. Notes. 163 

vey's eminence should not at least have thought his arguments worthy 
of serious treatment, and wrote to J. D. Hooker, " I was not sorry for 
a natural opportunity of writing to Harvey, just to show that I was not 
piqued at his turning me and my book into ridicule, not that I think it 
was a proceeding which I deserved, or worthy of him." — (" Life and 
Letters of C. Darwin," ii., 314). 

Among some pamphlets from the library of Omeath House recently 
acquired by the National Library of Ireland there is a copy of this 
pamphlet, no doubt sent by the author to Mr. J. O. Woodhouse ; in it is 
the inscription — " This is rubbish — merely got up to amuse an evening 
meeting of a private Society. — W. H. H." It is worth nothing, then, 
that our eminent Irish botanist did not in any way intend his brochure to 
be taken serious'y, as Darwin seemed inclined to do. Possibly Harvey 
regretted having written his essay at all, for we gather from an editorial 
note in Darwin's " Life and Letters " that the copy sent to the author 
of the " Origin of Species " was inscribed " With the writer's repentance, 
Oct., i860." 



R. Lloyd Praeger. 



DubHn. 



BOTANY. 

Spiranthes Romanzoffiana in Co. Armagh. 

At a recent B. N. F, C. excursion Spiranthes Romanzoffiana was found 
at Raughlan, on the Co. Armagh shore of Lough Neagh. On this pro- 
montory the plant did not appear to be plentiful, as careful search in the 
shore meadows only yielded two plants, the first of which was found by 
Mr. S. M. Macoun. Some time ago Mr. N. Carrothers traced this plant 
growing practically all the way between Ellis's Cut and Kinnagoe, a dis- 
tance of about two miles, and in some of the meadows in large numbers. 
This was recorded by Mr. Praeger {vide vol. xxii., p. 179). The Raughlan 
station is some i| miles west of Kinnagoe, and from thence to the Co. 
Tyrone boundary there are some twelve miles of shore line which should 
repay investigation. 

Nevin H. Foster. 

Hillsborough, Co. Down, 

Sir Frederick Moore sent me last August a specimen of this plant collec- 
ted in the cut-away bog at Brackagh by Mr. John S. W. Richardson. 
This is my original station for the plant (/. AT., ii., 159), which at the time 
it seemed better not to publish. Mr. Richardson saw six plants. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 
Dublin. 



164 The Irish Naturalist. Oct. -Nov., 191 8 



Galium sylvestre in Co. Antrim. 

In tlie Irish Naluralist, \()1. xvi., p. ;^zz, the late Mr. J. H. Davics 
notified that there was in the National Herbarium a specimen labelled 
thus, in Dr. Moore's handwriting — " G. pusillum {^=G. sylvestre]. Rare, 
observed near Fairhead and on Lurigedan Mountain, near Cushendall, 
July, 1836." The above Galium was excluded from Stewart and Corry's 
" Flora of the N.E. Ireland " {vide page 295). On the 24th June, of this 
year, I gathered on Lurigedan specimens of a Galium which I took to be 
sylvestre. The plants were submitted to i\Ir. N. Colgan, who wrote in 
reply as follows : — " I have examined the Lurigedan Galium . . . and 
have little hesitation in accepting it as good Galium sylvestre, Poll. . . . 
On the faith of the specimens, which I now return you, I am satisfied to 
restore G. sylvestre to the Flora of N.E. Ireland." Later I found Galium 
sylvestre at Ardclinis, fide Miss Knowles. 



W. R. Megaw. 



Ahoghill. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Whales and Dolphins Stranded in Ireland. 

Reference was made to Dr. Harmer's reports on the Cetacea stranded 
on the coasts of the British Islands "in the years 1915 and 1916 in the 
Irish Naturalist of July, 191 7. Another report has just been issued b}^ 
Dr. Harmer published as before by the British Museum, on the Whales 
and allied creatures which have been cast ashore during last year. Most 
of the localities given are in England or Scotland. A few of them are 
in Ireland : — 

Porpoise [Phocaena phocena), Sheephaven, Co. Donegal, March 20. 

White-beaked Dolphin {Lagenorhynchns albirostris), Sheephaven, 
Co. Donegal, March 23. 

Rorqual {BaJaenoptera sp.l), Rinvyle, Co. Galway, March 26. 

Cuvier's Whale {Ziphius cavirostris) , Liscannor, Co. Clare, 
June 9. 

Lesser Rorqual [Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Schull, Co. Cork, 
September 22. 

Bottle-nosed Whale {Hyperoodon rostratiis), Schull, Co. Cork, 
September 20. 

In a note headed " errata " Dr. Harmer again alludes to a supposed 
specimen of Rudolphi's Rorqual [Balaenoptera horealis) which was reported 
to have been stranded at Derrynane, Co. Kerry, on the 28th February, 
1914. He has since come to the conclusion that this whale was more 
probably a Common Rorqual. 



December, 191 8, The Irish Naturalist. 165 

ON THE REPRODUCTION OF THE COMMON 
GARDEN SNAIL, HELIX ASPERSA. 

BY NATHANIEL COLGAN, M.R.I. A. 

There is in existence a considerable body of literature 
dealing with the life-history and the manners and customs 
of the Common Garden Snail {Helix aspersa), that air- 
breathing or pulmonate mollusc so well known to and so 
little respected by the horticulturist. The animal thrives in 
my garden in spite of persistent discouragement, and this 
summer I found it to be uncommonly active in providing 
for the future supply of the species. In the course of a single 
day's gardening I came across no less than ten individuals 
half buried in the soil and laying those clusters of pearly 
eggs so familiar to us all as common objects of the flower 
bed. As one of these ten had only begun egg-laying, the 
cluster having but five eggs, I was tempted to make some 
observations on the life history of the species in the hope 
of adding something new to the lore of a somewhat thread- 
bare subject. 

Selecting for the purpose the snail which had already 
laid five eggs, I lifted it from its burrow at 5 p.m. on the 
27th June last, and taking it indoors placed it on a bed of 
potting mould in a glass petrie-dish, two inches in diameter 
and one and a half inch in depth, covering the animal with 
an inch of mould. On examining the dish at i p.m. on the 
following day the number of eggs was found to be 74, so 
that 69 had been laid in the course of 20 hours. Placing 
the snail on the surface of the mould, I was able to watch 
the process of egg-laying, which continued up to 3 p.m., 
within which period 9 additional eggs were laid, bringing 
the total up to 83. The time taken for extrusion, from the 
first appearance of the egg at the orifice beneath the right 
upper tentacle until it had been passed downward to the 
sole of the foot, there to be cemented by mucus to the eggs 
previously laid, varied from 30 seconds to a minute. A 
few of the eggs just laid were removed for examination, 
and the remainder, about 75 in number, were buried in the 



l66 The Irish Naturalist. December, 

mould in the petrie-dish, which was covered by its glass 
cap and laid aside in a desk to await developments. 

The eggs varied slightly in form and size. The majority 
were globular, with a diameter of 4*5 mm. ; a few were 
ellipsoidal, with a longer axis of 5-5 mm., or, say, one-fourth 
of an inch. An outer filmy skin enclosed a dense layer of 
what appeared to be minute, white granules, the two 
forming a tenacious coat which enclosed a second filmy 
skin containing the colourless, glairy, albuminous matter 
destined for the nutriment of the embryo. Under a one-sixth 
inch objective the white granular coating was resolved into 
a dense layer of transparent crystals of the form known as 
rhombohedrons, these crystals being free or aggregated into 
small groups. In dilute nitric acid this crystal coating 
dissolved with brisk effervescence, leaving behind the 
structureless, filmy outer skin. The crystals were apparently 
carbonate of lime, and their presence suggested that they 
might be destined to furnish material for the shell of the 
young snail before it broke loose from the Qgg. This sug-, 
gestion was strengthened by examination of a number of 
eggs just after the young snails, provided with a well-formed 
spiral shell, had been hatched out. In all cases the thick 
opaque coating of crystals was found to have disappeared 
from the outer envelope of the egg, leaving behind a filmy 
skin, dotted here and there with scattered crystals. Many of 
the still sharp-edged crystals were found embedded in the 
remnants of the albumen carried off by the young snail 
attached to its foot, many more were seen lying inside of 
the snail-shell against the animal's body, and a stiU larger 
number, much reduced in size and with blunt or rounded 
edges, appeared in both positions. Intermediate steps in 
this process of translation of the crystals from the outer 
coating of the egg could be traced on examination of juveniles 
towards the end of the incubation period, so that the process 
progressed pari passu with the later stages of growth of the 
young snail-shell. Treated with dilute nitric acid, these 
young shells gave a brisk effervescence, while the enclosed 
animal similarly treated gave no reaction. 

At this stage of the inquiry a more diligent search through 
the scattered literature of the subject showed me that a 



i9i8. CoLGAN. — Reproduction of the Common Snail. 167 

French investigator, M. P. J. F. Turpin, had forestalled 
me by eighty-seven years in the discovery of the carbonate 
of lime crystals in the egg-shell of the garden snail. His 
paper, illustrated by excellent figures, was read before the 
French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1831 and published 
the following year in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles.^ 
In all points but one, and that not the least interesting, 
M. Turpin's observations and conclusions agree with 
those just detailed. This disagreement occurs on page 
448, where he poses the question whether the crystals in 
the outer envelope of the egg are designed to serve in the 
formation of the young snail-shell, a question, which, he 
tells us, he would have been almost ashamed to ask had it 
not been addressed to him by several zoologists. He answers 
with a decided negative, asserting that these crystals are 
no more destined to form the shell of the young snail than 
the shell of the bird's egg is destined to form the bird's 
bones. This opinion he bases partly on analogy and partly 
on insufficient or erroneous observation ; for he states that 
the crystals are always found investing the shell of the 
snail's egg after the animal has been hatched. As has just 
been shown here, this statement is at variance with fact, 
in so far, at all events, as Irish eggs are concerned. The 
gradual disappearance from the outer egg-envelope of the 
carbonate of lime crystals pari passu with the growth of 
the shell formed of the same substance in a non-crystalline 
state, seems to point to the formation of the shell from the 
crystals by the action of those vital processes of which we 
have still so much to learn. In spite, then, of M. Turpin's 
opinion, it is open to us to maintain that a portion of the 
crystals detached from the outer coating of the egg is dis- 
solved and utilized as shell material by the still unhatched 
animal. 

1 Ann, Sci. Nat., vol. xxv., pp. 426-453 — " Analyse microscopique 
de I'oeuf du Limacon des Jardins {Helix aspersa Linn.) et d s nombreux 
Cristaux rhomboedres de carbonate de chaux qui se forment a la paroi 
interieure de I'enveloppe exterieure de cet oeuf, enveloppe qui sert aux 
cristaux d'une sorte de geode." A committee of eminent chemists, to 
whom the question was referred by the Academy, reported in favour 
of M. Turpin's conclusion that the crystals were carbonate of lime. 

A2 



i68 The Irish Naturalist. December. 

On the nth July, fourteen days after the eggs laid in 
captivity had been placed in the petrie-dish, the dish was 
examined. Many of the eggs were found to be shrivelled 
up. They were evidently " addled." Others were still 
quite plump, and one of these being carefully opened was 
found to contain a young snail enclosed in a transparent, 
colourless shell. This unhatched juvenile was already pro- 
vided with a distinct radula or lingual ribbon, having a 
total of 240 teeth ranged in 25 rows, varying from 4 to 16 
teeth in the row, with the median tooth well developed in 
the wider rows. In a well-grown adult H. aspera as many 
as 15,000 teeth have been counted in the radula. 

Three days later, on the 14th July, another plump egg 
was taken from the mould in the petrie dish and for facihty 
of examination was fully immersed in fresh water in a large 
watch-glass. Soon after immersion the tip of the foot was 
extruded from the e^^, and in little more than three hours the 
animal had completely worked its way out. The upper 
tentacles w^ere a beautiful pale violet colour, and the beating 
of the heart could be plainly seen through the transparent 
shell. The beats varied from 40 to 50 per minute, and the 
young snail lived fully immersed for 29 hours. One might 
be tempted to find in this sub-aqueous vitality of a juvenile 
pulmonate or air-breathing mollusc an illustration of the 
recapitulation theory, in which the early stages of an 
organism are reminiscent of its remote ancestry ; for it 
has been suggested that the forefathers of the land snails 
are to be found in the marine nudibranchs. But this would 
be too daring an exercise of the scientific imagination, all 
the more so as this capacity for a somewhat lengthened sub- 
aqueous existence is shared by the adult. 

On the i6th July, just eighteen days after the laying of 
the eggs, 25 young snails were found hatched out and 
buried in the mould, which adhered to the copious mucus 
of the foot so as to make it by no means easy to distinguish 
the animal. The following day 20 others issued from the egg, 
making a total of 45 successfully hatched out of 75 placed in 
the mould in the petrie-dish on the 28th June. The young 
snails were so lively that it was found necessary to keep 



i9i8. CoLGAN. — Reproduction of the Common Snail. 169 

their travelling instinct within bounds by confining them 
in a crystal chamber formed of two large watch glasses 
placed edge to edge one over the other. A second brood 
hatched out with me under similar treatment on the 8th 
August, after 18 days' incubation, as in the case of the first 
brood. ^ 

The shell of the freshly hatched snail had a diameter 
of 4 mm. ; it was almost colourless, faintl}^ tinged with 
3/ellow, but showing no signs of the characteristic blotchings 
which have earned for the species the name aspersa. In 
air, the heart in four specimens examined was found to 
give 60 regular beats to the minute. One of these four 
immersed in water had its heart-beats soon reduced from 
60 to 45 per minute, showing a reduction of vitality by 
change of element. The eyes, so obscure in the dark coloured 
adult, were most conspicuous in the juvenile as black dots 
on the translucent violet tentacles. The otocysts, or 
chambers enclosing the otoliths or auditory granules, about 
20 in number in each cyst, were clearly visible under a one- 
sixth inch objective when the head of the animal was sub- 
jected to gentle pressure. As one followed with fascinated 
gaze the rapid tremulous oscillations of these ovate granules, 
the very heart of the mystery of molluscan sensation seemed 
to be laid bare. 

As soon as hatched the snails began to feed. The young 
leaves of the Everlasting Pea were found to suit their taste 
admirably. These they devoured greedily, though at long 
intervals, stripping off the tender parenchyma from the 
leaves until a band of green appearing through the trans- 
parent shell showed that the juvenile w^as gorged. Growth 
was on the whole rapid and especially so in that important 
organ, the radula, on which a series of observations was 
made with the results set out in the following table : — 



^ In the " Cambridge Natural History," vol. iii., p. 43, the Rev. A. H. 
Cooke says that he succeeded in hatching out eggs of Helix aspersa, during 
the very warm summer of 1893, in 17 days. It seems not improbable 
that under conditions of steady heat and moisture the incubation period 
may become shortened to 15 days. 



170 



The Irish Naturalist. 



December, 



Growth of the Radula before and after hatching. 



Age of Snail. 


Number of 


Estimated 




rows in radula. 


total of teeth. ^ 


1 1 days incubating 


16 


100 


14 


25 


240 


Just hatched 


45 


975 


6 days out . . 


75 


2,600 


14 , „ .. 


90 


4.750 


6 weeks ,, 


102 


5,750 


1 Adult of average size . . 


130 


11,500 



The growth of the shell was less rapid. Taking its longer 
diameter as the standard, the juvenile just hatched gave a 
breadth of 4 mm., at the age of 9 days, 5 mm. ; of 21 days, 
6 mm. ; at 6 weeks, 8 mm. ; and at 2 months, 9 mm., 
or about one-third of the diameter of the adult shell. As 
for the otoliths, about 20 when hatched, they increased to 
100 after 6 days, to 125 after 21 days, to 175 after 6 weeks, 
and to 250 after 10 weeks. 

The characteristic dark brown markings of the shell are 
of slow development. In specimens 6 days hatched dark 
brown spots and blotches were quite conspicuous, but on 
opening the transparent shell these markings were found 
to be confined to the mantle of the animal. K specimen 
9 days hatched showed the first sign of shell marking in 
the form of a single pale tawny band encircling the body 
whorl. Another individual, six weeks old, showed five tawny 
bands on the shell, the innermost and the third from the 
centre being twice as broad as the remaining three, which 
were thread-like. With these bands appeared a few dark 
spots and blotches. Finally, in a snail ten weeks hatched 
the dark spots and blotches appeared in large numbers, 
while the tawny bands on the body whorl were now reduced 
to two, the first and third from the centre, both of these 
having much increased in breadth and in depth of colour. 

Sandycove, Co. Dublin. 

1 Of the series of numbers given in this column, the first and second 
are the result of actual counting ; the remaining five are estimated by 
a uniform method which understates rather than overstates the number. 



i9i8. Irish Societies. 171 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

October 9. — The Club met at Leinster House, the President in the 
chair. H. A. Lafferty exhibited preparations of myceHum of a parasitic 
fungus Colletotrichum linicolum in the epidermal cells of the testa of living 
flax seed. The fungus, which has been described as a new species in the 
Set. Proc. Roy. Dublin Society, vol. xv. (N. S.), No. 30, Aug., 1918, causes 
a leaf-spot and stem lesion disease of flax seedlings and hibernates in the 
form of dormant mycelium in the testa of infected seeds. 

Dr. G. H. Pethybridge exhibited the ascomycetous fungus Keithia 
thujina Dur. It was discovered in quantity in July, 1918, on the leaves 
of young trees of Thuja plicata Don in a nursery at the forestry station 
of the Irish Department of Agriculture at Baunreagh, in the Slieve Bloom 
mountains, Queen's County, where it was responsible for the death of many 
hundreds of three-year old trees. It was also found on an older tree in 
one of the plantations, but in this case the injury done was not so serious. 
The fungus was kindly identified by Miss E. M. Wakefield of the Kew 
Herbarium. This species of Keiihia was first observed by J. J. Davis 
in 1908, in Wisconsin, U.S.A., on Thuja occidentalis, and was described 
by E. J. Durand in 1913 {Mycologia, v., p. 6). In 1916 J. R. Weir 
called attention to a serious disease in young plants of T. plicata 
Don occurring in the lake region of northern Idaho {Phytopathology, 
vi., p. 360) caused by the same fungus. The present notice is the first 
record of the appearance of Keithia thujina outside of North America. 

W. F. GuNN showed a mounted preparation of the capillitium and spores 
of the myxomycete Hemitrichia Vesparium. The species has not previously 
been recorded from Ireland, but was found by him in September of this 
year growing on a decaying sawdust heap near the Glen of the Downs. 

November 13. — The Club met at Leinster House, the President 
in the Chair. 

H. A. Lafferty exhibited microscopic preparations of Pestalozzia 
funerea (Desm.). The fungus was found growing on the bark of Ciip- 
vessiis Lawsoniana twigs, but whether as a parasite or saprophyte was 
not definitely determined. This fungus has hitherto been unrecorded for 
Ireland. 

Dr. G. H. Pethybridge exhibited specimens and sections illl^strating 
the phenomenon of heterocarpism, which, as he had recently found, 
occurs in Helminthia [Picris) echioides, the Bristly Ox-Tongue, and which 
does not appear to be widely known. Two quite distinct forms of fruits 
are borne by each head of this plant. About sixty or so are golden-brown 
in colour with wrinkled skins, while from three to five more or less 
resemble peeled bananas. Hetcrocarpy in this plant was dealt with by 
Dclpino in Mem. R. Accad. d. Sci. d. Inst. d. Bologna (5) iv., 1894, p. 31. 



1/2 The Irish Naturalist. December, 

NOTES. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Argynnis asflaia in north-west Wexford. 

On July 31st I took here a faded specimen of the Dark-green Fritillary 
{Argynnis aglaia), which had evidently flown for a long distance. As we 
are eighteen miles from the sea, the occurrence is probably a sufficiently 
far inland one to be worth recording. I have paid attention to the butter- 
flies of this neighbourhood, without once meeting aglaia, for forty-two 
years. As long ago as 1878 my local list stood at twenty-three species, 
and it is only in 19 18 that a twenty-fourth has turned up in this weather- 
beaten straggler. 

C. B. Moffat. 
Ballyhyland, Co, Wexford. 

New Locality for Thecla betulae. 

On August 13, I saw (but unluckily did not capture) a fresh-looking 
female specimen of the Brown Hairstreak Butterfly {Thecla betulcs) in a 
bit of wooded ground in the Urrin valley, near Kiltrea. The spot is only 
about a mile from the present bounds of old Killoughram Wood, which 
has long been known to me as a haunt of this rare butterfly ; but as 
the character of the vegetation is precisely similar, and the once extensive 
forest of Killoughram must originally have embraced the whole of the 
Urrin valley, the presence of the Brown Hairstreak Butterfly — a very 
sedentary insect — at Kiltrea may probably be a case of survival. I 
had never before seen the insect anywhere outside Killoughram Wood, 
where of late years, from unexplained causes, it has been quite scarce. 

C. B. Moffat. 
Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 

Abnormal Caterpillar of Choerocampa. 

It may, perhaps, be worth recording that early in August I got a 
caterpillar of the Elephant Hawk-Moth {Choerocampa elpenor), remarkable 
in having three pairs of well-defined eye-markings, showing as six eyes 
when the sphynx attitude is assumed, and remarkable also in having the 
caudal horn reduced to little more than a rvidiment. A few days later 
the caterpillar begin to spin its cocoon, preparatory to pupation. 

W. E. Hart. 
Kilderry, Co. Donegal. 



i9i8. Notes. 173 



Gonepteryx rhamni in Co. Fermanagh. 

I saw the " Brimstone " Butterfly on my way into Pettigo on May 
lyth ; it was a worn-out, ragged specimen. 

H. B. Rathborne. 

Dreenan, Co. Fermanagh. 



Return of the Gold-crest. 

I am glad to be able to report the re-appearance in this district of the 
Golden-crested Wren (one of the five species locally exterminated by the 
frost and snow of January, 1917), having seen a single individual near this 
house on the 25th of October last, and a party of several on the 22nd of 
November, Two of the exterminated species — the Grey Wagtail and 
Meadow Pipit — had already re-established themselves in some numbers 
by the close of 191 7. In the November of that year I also saw a party 
of Long-tailed Titmice in the valley of the Urrin, but these were apparently 
performing a local migration, as none have been seen since. The Stone- 
chat is, however, the only bird of the five that during the whole of the past 
twenty-two months has not been seen at all. 

C. B. Moffat 

Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 



A few Bird Notes from Balbrig-g-an. 

Like my valued friend Mr. Moftat, I have noticed the absence of a good 
many birds this year. Unlike his, our birds have not all returned yet. 
I have not seen or heard a Stonechat or a Gold-crest, and other birds are 
notably fewer this year — such as Goldfinches and Mistle Thrushes ; it 
may be that the aeroplanes constantly circling over this district have driven 
them away — and indeed no wonder when what seems to be an enormous 
eagle with outstretched wings and an awful droning seems to threaten 
their destruction. The Crows and Jackdaws in wild confusion dash in 
all directions to escape. On the other hand the Chaffinch " pricks " 
nonchalantly, and poor Robin sings sweetly as before ; but the usual 
autumn immigration of Skylarks is wanting here, nor have the Siskins 
yet appeared off the shore. However, I have noted fifteen summer 
migrants in 191 8, but none of our four " rarae aves," the Blackcap, the 
Quail, the Grasshopper Warbler, and the Turtle Dove. I am now looking 
out for the Snow Bunting, which is rare here. 

Charles W. Benson. 
Bedford House, Balbriggan. 



174 ^^^ Irish Naturalist, ' December, 1918. 



A Jay in Co. Lon^^ford. 

During over thirty years of careful observation of bird life here, never 
until to-day have I seen a Jay. I had him under view with my opera 
glasses for at least a quarter of an hour, and could not possibly mistake 
his brilliant plumage. Most of time under a big oak tree, apparently 
at the acorns. I hope he is not merely a passer by. Your readers will be 
interested in this incident. 

J- Mackay Wilson. 

Currygrane, Co. Longford. 



BOTANY. 

Irish Myxomycetes. 

When starting on a " Myxie Hunt " one cannot always count with 
certainty on securing specimens, even during favourable weather con- 
ditions, but there is still in many parts of Ireland, the chance of finding 
something which is new to the district. This was my luck on a visit 
paid to the Glen of the Downs in September last, when the solitary find 
of the day proved to be Hemitvichia Vaspanum McBride. It was found 
growing on an old heap of sawdust in a sawmill close by the Delgany 
entrance to the Glen, and is the first record from Ireland outside Ulster. 
Miss G. Lister has been good enough to examine the specimen and confirm 
my identification. 

On the 24th October 1 was fortunate enough to get about a dozen 
sporangia of the minute but very beautiful Comatricha elegnns Lister, on 
dead wood at Emo Park, Portarlington. The only other Irish records 
for this are Belvoir Park, Belfast (M. \V. Rea) and Carngaver woods 
(Stelfox). 

On the 25th October my boy Stanley observed a mass of wood-plas- 
modium on a tree trunk near the Dodder River at Rathfarnham. He 
cut off a portion with the bark on which it was creeping, and brought it 
home to me. It was placed in a saucer with a little water, and in about 
a week it ripened and formed a round oethalium about one inch in diameter, 
which on microscopical examination proved to be Brefeldio maxima Rost. 
The only other Irish record of this scarce species which I can trace is 
that of Professor Yapp, who found it at Malone, near Belfast. It has 
also been recorded from England, Prance, Sweden, Ciermany, Switzerland, 
and the United States. 

W. I". GUNN. 

Dublin. 



*«'. * ■ <• * 


■:-®v 


»•»«• ».*^.«>» 


H Vol. XXVII. 
JANUARY, 


No. 1. B 
1918. 



f'M 









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AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.H.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, FJE.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS. Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.C. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientific works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on ail matters 
of current scientific interest 



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Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THK 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. (Sundays from 12 noon) 

tin dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPiZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MODROS 

(A Warship Pet), 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges ol Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPaKTMENT of Af^ilCULTUKE ANJJ TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. The Warble Fly. 

„ 2 The Use and Purchase of leeding 

Stuffs. 

,, 8. Foot Rot in Sheep. 

„ 4. The Sale of Flax. 

„ 5. Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 

„ 6. Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 

„ 7. Fluke in Sheep. 

„ 8. Timothy Meadows. 

„ 9. The Tiu-nip Fly 

,, 10. Wireworms. 

,. '1 Prevention of White Scour in Calves 

,, 12. Liquid Manure 

„ 13. Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 

„ 14 Prevention of Potato Blight. 

,, 15. Milk Records. 

„ 16. Sheep Scab. 

„ 17. The Use and Purchase of Manures. 

,, 18. Swine Fever. 

,, 19. Earlv Potato Growing. 

„ 20. Calf Rearing 

„ 21. Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 

„ 22. Basic Slag. 

„ 23. Dishorning Calves. 

„ 24. Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 

„ 25. Fowl Cholera. 

„ 26. Winter Fattening of Cattle. 

„ 27. Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 

„ 28. Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 

„ 29 Flax Seed. 

„ 30. Poultry Parasites— Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 

„ 31. Winter Egg Production. 

„ 32. Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 

„ 33. Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 

„ 34. The Revival of Tillage. 

„ 35. The Liming of Land. 

„ 36. Field Experiments — Barley. 
„ 37. ,, „ Meadow Hay 

„ 38 „ „ Potatoes. 

„ 39. „ „ Mangels. 

„ 40 „ ,. Oats. 

„ 41. „ „ Turnips 

„ 42. Permanent Pasture Grisses 

,, 43. The Rearing and Management of 

„ 44. " Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves 

„ 45. Eingworm on Cattle 

„ 46 Haymaking 

„ 47. The Black Currant Mite. 

„ 48 Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 

„ 49. Poultry Fattening. 

„ 50 Portable Poultry Houses. 

„ 51. The Leather-.Tarket Grub. 

, I 52. Flax Experiments 

,, 53. The Construction of a Cowhouse. 

.. 54. Calf Meals. 



lo. 


55. 


«• 


56. 


•1 


57. 


ft 


58. 


19 


59. 




60. 


• 1 


61. 




62. 


»> 


63. 


>• 


64. 


1» 


65. 


>> 


66. 


l> 


67. 


»» 


68. 


ft 


69. 


f J 


70. 



71. 



fV 


72. 


»» 


73. 


if 


74. 




75 




76 




77. 




78 


II 


79. 


;> 


80. 




81. 


Tl 


82. 


f» 


83. 


11 


84. 


yr 


85 




86. 




87. 




88. 


»» 


89 


M 


90 


♦ » 


91. 


»f 


92 


>» 


93. 


f> 


94. 


t> 


95. 


>J 


96. 


»» 


97. 




9H. 


• t 


99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornan)ent. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
nnd Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timb r. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home" Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits 
Catch Crops 

Potato Cultm-e on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty Milk. 
Barlev Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatcliing 
Weeds 

Tuberculosis in Poultrv. 
Seaweed in Manure 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. Catch Crops. 

„ 2, Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

,, 3. Eggs and Poultry. 

,, 4. The War and Food Production 

„ 5. The Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

„ 6. Winter Manuring (.rass Lands. 

,, 7. Feeding of Pigs — Use of Boiled Swedes. 

., 8. Deslr'ution o) Farm Pest. 

,, 9. Grain Crops. 

Copitt of the above Ua^lets can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on application to the 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Merrum Street, 
Dvblin. LetUra of application ao addresaed need riot be atamped. 



No. 10. Pig Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
„ 11. Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
„ 12. The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
„ 13. Sulphate of Ammonia. 
, 14. Flax-seed for 1918 So\ung. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E.. 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Ori^nal Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of. the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, 'etc., and Notes recording the Occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. ^ 



Edinburgh : OLIVER &, BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Thompson's Natural History of Ireland, 4 vols. (Scarce, out 
of print), 50s. 

More. — Geographical distribution of Plants ih'Ireland, 6s. 6d. 

Ward's Life Histories of Familiar Plants, 86 plates, 3s. 

Birds useful and harmful, 85 plates, 3s. Postage extra. 

Many others, lists, also British Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. 

Ford, 36 Irving Road, Bournemouth, Hants. 



Vol. xxvii., No. 1., 



January, 1916. 



CONTENTS. 

I'orcellio Rathkii, ;i Woodlouse new to the' Irish Fauna — 

Walter E., Colli nge, D.Sc. 
Aculeate I-lyriienoptera from the Counties of Armagli and 

Donegal -Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.A. • .. 

Notes on Lepidoptera fr6ni East Tyrone in 1917 — 

Thomas .Greer .. .. .. 

1 lie Giaiaceae of the Rosses', West Donegal — 

Rev. Canon G. k. Bullock- Webster, MA. 

Notes : 

Th6 Purple Sea Urchin at Inishkeel, Co. Donegal — 

Rev. W. F. Johnson, M- A- 
Great Increase of Butterflies and Moths in Ireland^W. H. Workman 
Irish Psychid Moths — Rev. C. R. N. Burrows 
■ Convulvulus Hawk-Moth in Cos. Antrim and Down — 

Rev. W; ;F. Johnson, M.A. . . . . 

A Late Wasp — Rev. W, F. Johnson, M.A. .. 
Sphinx con vol vu Li attacked by Larvae of .Dipteron — 

Rev. W. W. Flemyng, M.A., and j; ~ N. Halbert 
Sunfish at Lame Harbour — J: A. S. Stendall 
Stray Bird Notes, Autumn, jqi'j — Rev. C. W. Benson, LL.D. . 
Green Sandpiper in King's Co. — JVIrs. Rait Kerr 
Woodcock marked in Ireland and recovered in Shetland — 

W. Eagle Clarke, LL.D. 
Sandwich Terns breeding in Co. Galway — Robert F. Ruttledge . 
Owls and Sparrow-hawks clapping their wings — G. Bolam 

Irish Societies : 

Dublin Microscopical Club . . 



PAGE 

I 
2 

4 

7 



10 

IT 

II 

12 
12 

13 
14 

14 
14 

15 

15" 
1.5 



16 



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Copies of 

February, 1903; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST." 

Care 0/ Eason and Son, Ltd., 

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ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY. 

ORGAN OF THE 
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TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. ^ 

EDITED BY- 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

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Price 6d. 



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THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITE^D BY 
T. SHEPPARD. M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.SA., Scot., 

The ]\Iuseum. Hull ; 

AXD 

T. W. WOODHtAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll.. 

■ HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH The assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.aS., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON/M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal fsofie of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in" the .British Isles dialing back 10^833. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS. Ltd., 5] FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 

Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY. ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIE'NCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of ail recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondencie (h>lumTis, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and! of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientifit Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

{1^0 all places Abroad). £ ?. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

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»'•» A charge of Sixpenn? is made lor changihjj^ Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-si^., London, W.C. 





£ P. d. 


Yearly 


18 


Half-yearly 


14 6 


Quarterly 


6 3 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROiVI MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



departmknt of a(Uucultuke and tkchnical 
instruction for ireland. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No 


1. 


»> 


2 


t» 


8. 


»f 


4. 


9t 


5. 


If 


6. 


ir 


7. 


• • 


8. 


ft 


9. 




10. 




:.i 




12. 


It 


13. 


;» 


14 




15. 


»» 


16. 




17. 




18. 


if 


19. 


n 


20. 


*f 


21. 


»i 


22. 


9t 


23. 


>» 


24. 


tr 


25. 




26. 




27. 


11 


28. 


ft 


29 


ff 


30 


it 


31 


it 


32 


ft 


33 


ft 


34. 


ft 


S.'i 


ft 


36 


If 


37 


»f 


38 


If 


39 




40 


ft 


41 


tt 


42 


t . 


43 




44 




45 


It 


46 


11 


47 


ti 


48 


It 


49 


. 9 


50 


»t 


51 


t 1 


52 


II 


53 




54 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Cliarlock (^or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothv Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious .Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Piu-chase of Manures. 
SwTne Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishornina: Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

,, ,, Meadow Hay 

„ ,, Potatoes 

,, ,. Mangels. 

Oats. 
Turnips 
Permanent Pasture Gr sses 
The Rearing and Management oi 

Chickens 
" Husk " or " HooFe " In Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle 
Havmaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
riux Experiments 

The Construction of & Cowhouse. 
Calf MeaU. 



No. 



56. 

57 

58. 

59. 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70 

71. 

72. 
73 

74. 

75 

76 

77. 

78 

79. 

SO 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89 

90 

91. 

92 

93. 

94. 

9.5. 

96. 
97. 
9'<. 
99 



Root Crop. 



The Proper 
Forest Trees 
Trees for 



Method of 
Poles and 



Trees for Shelter and 



of Tuberculosis in 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the 

Marketing oi Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testins of Farm Seeds 

The Packing of Butter 

Field Experiments — Wheat 

The Mana'jcmeut of Dair\ Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 
Forestry 
Planting 
Forestry : 
Timber 
Forestry : 
Ornament. 
The Prevention 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
ind Preservation of bhelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Slieep 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle 
Home Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small 
Catch Crop> 

Potato Culture on Small 
Cultivation of Main Crop 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orciiard 
Dirty Milk 
Barlev Thivshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
Tlie .\dvantagts oi Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home i^reservatiOK of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds 

Tuberculosis in Poultrv. 
Seaweed in Manure 



Fruits 

Farms. 
Potatoes 



Insects. 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



No. 



1. 
2. 
:V. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8 
9. 
10. 



Catch Crop-. 

Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

The War and iood Production 

The Sowing of Sining Wheat. 

Winter Mainiring trass Lands. 

Feeding of Pigs Use of Boiled Swedes. 

Destr'Ution ol Farm Pest. 



o. 11. 


„ 12. 


M 13. 


, 14. 


,, 15. 


„ 16. 


.. 17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Diguing and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
i'liix-Kced for 19IS Sowing. 
Pur< base of B.i.-^ic Slag. 
Prices of Siiperph'isphare. 
Prices of Compound Fixtilisers. 



Grain Crops. j 

Pig Feeding — The need for economy, i 

Copie$ o' the attom Ua^ftt can he obtained free of charge, and post free, on abdication to the 
Seiyrctary Dp.pariment of Agriculture and Technical I nstruction for Ireland. Upper Mernon Utreet, 
Dtiblin. Letters of application to addresised need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE, 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST 

A MONTHLY JMAGAZINi:, 

EDITED BY 

WM EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS. F.R.S.E 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW. F.R.S.E., 

Natural History Department, Royal .Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Orio:inal Matter relating-,to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Pape^rs contributing to the elucidation of the ' Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording- the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER d, BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Thompson's Natural History of Ireland, 4 vols. (Scarce, out 
of print), 50s. 

More.— Geographical distribution of Plants in Ireland, 6s. 6d. 

Ward's Life Histories of Familiar Plants, 86 plates, 3s. 

Birds useful and harmful, 85 plates, 3s. Postage extra. 

Many others, lists; also British Lepidoptera and Coledptera. 

Ford, 36 Irving Road, Bournemouth, Hants. 



Complete set of '* Irish Naturalist," first 22 being bound in 
cloth. What offers. Apply "I. N.," Eason and Son, Ltd., 
Advertising Agents, 17 Donegal! Street, Belfast. 



Vol. xxvii., No. 2. February, 1918. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Edward Hull (with Portrait). — Prof. Grenville A. J. 

Cole, F.R.S. .... , ,. .. 17 

Lnsitania and Kerry : a Botanical Parallol^-^NATfiANiEL 

COLGAN, M.R.i.A. . . . . . . . . 20 

Notes. on Myriahoda, Vlll. Recent Additions to tlie Irish 
Fauna. — Hilda K. Brade-Birks, M.Sa, M.B., and 
Rrv. S. Graham Brade-Birks, M.Sc. .. .. 27 

Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society/^ Dublin IVIicroscopicnl Club . . 29 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club .... . . . , 30 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club , . . . , . . . -t 

Notes : 

Sedum Drucei . . . . . . . . . . 31 

Notes t)n Birds in 'Kiiig's £p>^Mrs. H. M. Rai^ . . 31 

Migration on Lough Mask. — Robert F. Ruttledge . . 32 

Review : 

W. Trelease's "Plant Materialsv ojE^JDecorative Gardening " 

(R. Ll. p.) * " . . . . .... . . . . 32 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1 903 ; January, 1 894 ; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Easoii and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 





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^»»}; 



Vol. XXVII. No. 3. 
MARCH, 1918. 






^iiiiim 



iy. 



i\ 




•>; 



fl fiDontbli? 3ournal 

ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY. 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOdfET 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATUIRALISTS* FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Ppof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc:, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 

Price 6d. 




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y 



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BELFAST: 17 DonegaU Street 

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J 



The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelve parts) will be sent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 



THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD. M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A., Scot. 

The Museum, Hull ; - 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAI. DEPARTMENTS 0» 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.US., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.8., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, FJ[.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest .Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

Loi^don : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE. E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming witfiia 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of tht 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers wtiich 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principaf 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

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£ s. d. 


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THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 



OF THK 



ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PKOEI^IX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open dally from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6c!., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Cliiliren, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND PCLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADlAi^ BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROiVl EVIUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPARTMENT OF Af^lICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 



»> 


3. 


»? 


4. 


>> 


5. 




6. 


>> 


7. 


91 


8. 


ft 


9. 




10. 




:i 




12. 


M 


13. 


19 


14 




15. 




16. 


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18 




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20. 


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21. 


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22. 


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23. 


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25. 




26. 




27. 


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28. 


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29 


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30. 


99 


31. 


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99 


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35. 


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37. 


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40 




41. 




42. 


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99 


45. 


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99 


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3. 


ft 


4. 


>> 


5. 


M 


6. 


It 


7. 




8. 


» t 


9. 


1 » 


10. 



The Warble Ply. 

The Use and Purchase of leeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Kot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock Cor Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Tiiuothv Meadows 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liciuid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

„ „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes 

„ ,. Mangels. 

„ ,. Oats. 

Turnips 
Permanent Pasture Grasses 
Thf Rearing and Management of 

"Husk" or "Hoose" In Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of & Cowhouse. 
Calf Mealfl. 



No. 55 The Apple. 

56. Cultivation of tlie Root Crop. 

57. Marketing of Fruit. 

58. Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

59. Testing of Farm Seeds 

60. The Packing of Butter. 

61. Field Experiments — Wheat 

62. The Manaizeraent of Dairv Cows. 

63. " Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 
in Cattle. 

64. Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 

65. Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

66. Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees 

67. Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

68. Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

69. The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

70 Forestry : Planting, Management, 
ind Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 

71. Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

72. Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
73 The Planting and Management of 

Hedges. 
74. Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

75 Barley Sowing 

76 American Gooseberry Mildew. 
77. Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
78 Home Buttermaking 

79. The Cultivation of Small Fruits 

80. Catch Crop> 

81. Potato Culture on Small Farms. 

82. Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 

83. Cultivation of Osiers. 

84. Ensilage. 
85 Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 

86. Dirty Milk. 

87. Barlev Threshing 

88. The Home Bottling of Fruit 

89 The Construction of Piggeries. 

90 The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
91. Black Scab in Potatoes 
92 Home Preservation of Eggs. 

93. Marketing of Wild Fruits. 

94. Cost of Forest Planting. 

95. Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

96. Packing Eggs for Hatching 

97. Weeds, 

98. Tuberculosis in Poultrv. 
99 Seaweed in Manure 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



Catch Crop.^. 

Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

The War and Food Production 

The Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

Winter Maiiuring (irass Lands. 

FeediTig of Pigs— Use of Boiled Swedes. 

Desi ruction ot Farm Pest. 

Grain Crops. 

Pig Feeding- -The need for economy. 



No. 11. 

„ 12. 

„ 13. 

, 14. 

., 15. 

„ 16. 

,. 17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
.I''lax-seed for 1918 Sowing. 
Purchase of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Superphospiiate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers. 



Copie$ 0* the above Itafiets can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on application to the 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Merrton Street, 
Dublin. Letters of application so addresaed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E,, F.L.S., 
Keeptr, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists* Union, 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the? 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER <L BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Thompson's Natural History of Ireland, 4 vols. (Scarce, out 
of print), 50s. 

More.— Geographical distribution of Plants in Ireland, 6s. 6d. 

Ward's Life Histories of Familiar Plants, 86 plates, 3s. 

Birds useful and harmful, 85 plates, 3s. Postage extra. 

Many others, lists, also British Lepiddptera and Coleoptera. 

Ford, 36 Irving Road, Bournemouth, Hants. 



Complete set of "Irish Naturalist,*' first 22 being bound in 
cloth. What offers. Apply "I.N.,"- Eason and Son, Ltd., 
Advertising Agents, 17 Donegall Street, Belfast. 



Vol. xxvii., No. 3. March, 1918. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Recent Extensions of the Range of Pisidium hibernicnm 

(Plates I., II.)— R^A. Phillips, ^!|[.R,L4, ajid A. W. 

Stelfox, M.R.I.A. .. .. ., . 33 

Irish Societies : 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club .. .. .. .. 50 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club .. .. .. .. 50 

Cork Naturalists' Field Club .. .. .. .. 51 

Dublin Microscopical Club .. .. .. .. 51 



Notes 



Fuligo septica var. Candida. — W. F. Gunn . . . . 52 

Abund^ance- of Lepidoptera in 1917. — T. W. L. Keane .. 52" 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay ts. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1903; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST.'' 

s d. 

Whole Page ... , ... ... From 10 ) ' 

,£■£■{ According to 
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Quarter Page ... ... ••• >> 4 j 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions, 



ALEX. THOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN. 



>N>: 



Vol. XXVII. No. 4. 
APRIL, 1918. 



\4 



-f\ 



fl flDontbl? 3ournal m^". 



ON 



*# 



GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HlSl^fefi^ 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 

Price 6d. 



I J. J ■ . - J - . * . . • . 






)'/, 



J 



A^^: 



DUBLIN: EASON & SON, Limited. : 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

BELFAST: 17 Donegall Street 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, 

KENT & CO., Limited. 



I uC 



raiff(IUUiii.uiiiiiii|i>iiiii<(j|ihiiiJlilMiViM^ 



The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelve parts) will be sent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HESTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, FJ[.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest .Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communicatioas to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign Journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO **NATURE." 



£ s. d. 

Yearly 18 

Half-yearly 14 6 

Quarterly 6 8 



(To all places Abroad) £ s. d. 
Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yeariy .. 15 8 

Quarterly ..080 



'»*» A charge of sixfence is made for changing 8cotch and Irish Cheques. 

Che-^jues and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THti 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND; 

PHOEI^IX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

tifl dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROW!^, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND PCLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES AliE NOW IN THE APE-HIJUSE 



AJ^a) 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — . 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



depaetment of aoricultuee and technical 
instruction for ireland. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 



II 


s. 


II 


4. 


II 


5. 


II 


6. 


II 


7. 


II 


8. 


II 


9. 


II 


10. 


t* 


11 


>l 


12. 


II 


13. 


tf 


14 




15. 


II 


16. 




17. 


II 


18 


II 


19. 


II 


20. 


«l 


21. 


II 


22. 


II 


23. 


II 


24. 


• 1 


25. 




26. 


II 


27. 


II 


28. 


II 


29 


II 


30. 


II 


31. 


II 


32. 


II 


33. 




34. 




35. 


II 


36. 


II 


37. 


II 


38 


•1 


89. 


• 1 


40 


II 


41. 


II 


42. 


• 1 


43. 


• 1 


44. 


• 1 


45. 


II 


46 


II 


47. 


II 


48 




49. 


>• 


50 


II 


51. 


1» 


52. 


II 


53. 


II 


54. 


S(} 


. 1. 


tt 


2. 


tf 


3. 




4. 


f9 


5. 


It 


6. 


tt 


i . 




H. 


»> 


9. 




lu. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celerj- Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Tiurnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour In Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

„ „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes. 

„ „ Mangels. 

„ „ Oats. 

Turnips 
Permanent Pasture Grasses 
The Rearing and Management of 

Chickens 
" Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Mealii. 



fo. 


55. 


II 


56. 


9t 


57. 


• I 


58. 


II 


59. 


II 


60. 


41 


61. 


II 


62. 


» 


63. 


II 


64. 


II 


65. 


II 


66. 


II 


67. 


II 


68. 


>» 


69. 


II 


70. 



71. 



» 


72. 


ft 


73 


f> 


74. 


tt 


75 


ff 


76 


9» 


77. 




78 


t» 


79. 


99 


80. 


9 : 


81. 


»9 


82. 


f« 


83. 




84 


5» 


85 


>? 


86 




87 


7* 


88 




89 


It 


90 


»t 


91 


»» 


92 


9» 


93 


»» 


94 


tf 


95 


If 


96 


tf 


97 




9^ 




99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Tlmb r. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits 
Catch Crops 

Potato Culture on SmaU Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty Milk. 
Barlev Threshing 
The Home Botthng of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs lor Hatching 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry, 
Seaweed in Manure, 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



Catch Crops. 

Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

The War and Food Production 

The Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

Winter Manuring Grass Lands. 

Feeding of Pigs- Use of Boiled Swedes. 

Desi r'ution oi Farm Pest. 

Grain Crops. 

Pig Feeding- -The need for economy. 

Copiti of the above Uaflets can be obtained fref, 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Dublin. Letlert of application to addreaised need 



No. 11. 

11 12. 

„ 13. 

, 14. 

,, lo. 

„ 16. 

,. 17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Suli>hate of Ammonia. 
Max-seed for 1918 Somng. 
Purchase of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Superphosphate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers. 



of charge, and pout free, on application to the 
Inntruction for Ireland, Upper Merrxon Street, 
not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FRE/S. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Orig^inal Matter relating to the 
Natural History of ^^cotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



WANTED. 

One Copy of Irish Naturalist for February, 1912. One 
Shilling will be given for it. Wanted also — Griffith, Mines of 
Leinster, R. Dublin Societ}^ 1827. Apply toiG. Cole, Royal 
College of Science, Dublin. 



Vol. xxvij.. No. 4. 



April, 1918. 



CONTENTS. 

The Development and Decay of the Irish Sea Glacier .- 
J. DE \y. HlXCH . . .... 



PAOE 



53 



Notes : 



Some Cork AliJsiis'.- — M. Holland . . 

Possible Hunting Grounds for the Characeae.— A. W. Stelfox, 
.MR.I.A. .. .. .. .. 

Notodonta bicoloria in Co. Kerry. — Thomas Greer 

Lepidoptera'of Lambay. — Hon. Cecil Baring 

Pigeons." in Belfast. — F. J. Bigger, M.R.I. A. .. . . 



^3 
64 

65 



Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological. Society 
Dublin Microscopical Club 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club 



66 

68 
68 



The Publishers will he pleased to pay 1 s. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1903; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

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Vol. XXVII. No. 5. 
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ON 



GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY^^ 



^yr 



ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

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AND 

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for 5$. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD. M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot.. 

The Museum, HIjll ; 

■ ' AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F:L.S.. Tech. Coll., 

HupDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest .Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

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" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
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THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OP THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELANDi 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. (Sundays from 12 noon) 

" till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

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EXCURSION PARTIES. 

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Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
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DEPARTMENT OF AORTCULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 
.. 2 



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3. 


tl 


4. 


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5. 




6. 




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4. 


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II 


6. 


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7. 




8. 


1 ( 


9. 




10. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows 
The Tiu-nip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Soour in Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Tm-keya- 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

,, „ Meadow Hay. 

„ „ Potatoes. 

Mangels. 
Oats. 
Turnips. 
Permanent Pasture Grasses 
The Rearing and Management of 

Cliickena 
" Husk " or " Hooge " in Calves 
Bingworm on Cattle 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-.facket Grub. 
Max Experiments 

The Construction of & Cowhouse. 
Calf MeaU. 



No. 


55 




56 


ty 


57 


91 


58 


ft 


59 


19 


60 


4 ) 


61 


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62 


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64. 
65. 



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99 


92 


tt 


93 


l> 


94 


•1 


95 


tt 


96 


n 


97 




98 


■ f 


99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits 
Catch Crops 

Potato Culture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty MUk. 
Barley Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultrv. 
Seaweed in Manure 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



Catch Crops. 

Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

The War and Food Production 

The Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

Winter Manuring (Jrass Lands. 

Feeding of Pigs — Use of Boiled Swedes. 

DeslTMction of Farm Pest. 

Grain Crops. 

Pig Feeding — The need for economy. 

Copitt of the above Uafiets can be obtained free 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Dtiblin. LetUrt of application mo addrested need 



No. 11. 
.. 12. 



13. 

14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
Flax-seed for 1918 Sowing. 
Purchase of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Superphosphate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers. 



of charge, and port free, on application to the 
Inrtructxon for Ireland, Upper Merrum Street, 
not be rtamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREiB. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. Edinburgh 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW. F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



I i! ' I 



This Mag-azine — founded ^n 1 87 1 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of .*<cotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER &. BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



Vol. xxvii., No. 6. May, 1918. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Irish Fossil Molliisks — R. Lloyd Praeger . . . . 69 

Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society — Belfast Naturalists' Field Club .. 74 

Dublin Microscopical Club . . . . . . . . 75 

Cosmos Club , . ' ' . . . . . . . . . . 76 

Obituary : 

William Hugh Patterson , . . . . . . . . . 76 

Limnaea glabra in Ireland — J. Wilfred Jackson, F'.g.s. 

— With Note by R. A. Phillips . . . . 77 

Notes : 

Natural History /Societies in' Deiry and Cork — R! Ll. 

Praeger . . , . . . . . . . . . 79 

Scarcity of the Fieldfare and Redwing^ — W. M. Abbott . . 79 

Woodchat-Shrike on Migration obtained at Tuskar Rock — 

Professor C. J. Patten, m.d. . . . . . . . . 79 

Meaning of " Swiney " and " Thriceeock " — J. H. Gurney . . 80 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1 903 ; January, 1 894 ; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

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Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 

s d. 

Whole Page ... ... ... From 10 ) 

,, ,, _ £. £. \ According to 

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ALEX. THOM AND CO.,' UMITBD, DUBLIN. 



v.-.v.:..::::.'®'. 


fc^..,,. • •• »*■- 


H Vol. XXVII. 
JUNE, 


No. 6. H 
1918. 



t"...'.'.;; 




M 



*••«'»«. 



M-/ m 



R riDontbl? 3ournal M. "^^s, 

ON ^% 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTO 



m 




ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY 8c PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 

Price 6d. 




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Th« IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelve parts) will be tent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs, Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G,S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museqm, Hull ; 

AND -' 

T. W, WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS RBFBRBBS IN SPECIAL DBPARTMBNTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in th,e British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS. Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifle works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign Journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

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£ s. d. 


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..180 


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THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRFXANDi 

PHOEMIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open dally from 9 a.m. (Sundays from 12 noon) 

tail dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND PCLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROIVI MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

RBFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon, Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAETMENT OF A('RICULTUEE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 



>f 


3. 


»r 


4. 


tt 


5. 


ff 


6. 


tf 


7. 


• • 


8. 


91 


9. 


tf 


10. 


ft 


11 


»» 


12. 


99 


13. 


M 


14 


.f 


15. 


99 


16. 


t* 


17. 


99 


18 




19. 




20. 




21. 


99 


22. 




23. 


91 


24. 


»9 


25. 


t 


26. 


99 


27. 


99 


28. 


99 


29 


• 9 


30. 




81. 




32. 




33. 


9 9 


84. 




85. 


99 


36 


M 


37. 


99 


38 


99 


89. 


• 9 


40 


ft 


41. 


ft 


42. 


9» 


43. 




44. 




45. 




46 




47. 




48 




49. 


•>t 


50 




51. 




62. 


99 


53. 


99 


54. 


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. 1. 


M 


2. 


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3. 




4. 


9» 


5 


ft 


6. 






It 


/. 


•I 


8 


l» 


9. 


It 


10. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot In Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapea 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mltea, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Bearing and Fattening of Turkeys- 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

„ „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes 

„ „ Mangels. 

„ „ Oats. 

Turnips. 
Permanent Pasture Grisses 
The Rearing and Management of 

Chickens 
" Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves 
Bingworm on Cattle 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



No. 55. 
56. 





57 




58 




59 




60 




61 




62 




63 



„ 64. 

„ 65. 

„ 66. 

„ 67. 

M 68. 

» 69. 

., 70. 

.. 71. 



99 


72 


tf 


73 


fP 


74 


99 


75 


99 


76 


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77. 


99 


78 


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79 


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80 


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82 


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83 


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85 


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87 


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88 


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89 


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91 


99 


92 


99 


93 


99 


94 


»9 


95 


99 


96 


>9 


97 




9S 


ft 


99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 



Forestry 
Lands. 

Forestry 



The Planting of Waste 



Poles and 



Trees for Shelter and 



The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees 
Forestry : Trees for 
Timber. 
Forestry : 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
ind Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timbtr. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Goose oerry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits 
Catch Crops 

Potato Culture on Small 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some InjiU"iou8 Orchard 
Dirty Milk. 
Barley Threshing 
The Home BottUng of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultrv. 
Seaweed in Manure 



Farms. 



Insects. 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



Catch Crops. 

Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

Tlie War and Food Production 

The Sowing of Spring Wiieat. 

Winter Manuring (irass Lands. 

Feeding of Pigs Use of Boiled Swedes. 

Deslr'iction ol Farm Pest. 

Grain Crops. 

Pig Feeding — The need for economy. 

Copiet o/ the above Uaffeit can be obtained free 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Dublin. Letteri of application io addressed need 



No. 11. 
.. 12. 



13. 

14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
Flax-seed for 1918 Sowing. 
Purvhase of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Superphosphate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers. 



of charge, and post free, on application to the 
Instruction for Ireland. Upper Mernon Street, 
not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6S. 64. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Sco ish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union, 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magrazine— founded in 1 87 1 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh I OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



NOTICE, 

Authors of Papers in the IRISH NATURALIST can be supplied with 50 Reprints 
at the following prices : — 

s. d. s. d. 



2 pp. ... ... 4 

4 pp. ... ... 6 



6 pp. ... ... 8 

8 pp. ... ... 9 



Authors should apply for Reprints when returning proofs, but any subsequent 
correspondence about Reprints should be sent to the Printers, Messrs. A. Thorn and 
Co., 8 Crow Street, Dublin, not to the Editors nor the Publishers. 

CONTRIBUTIONS (Articles or Notes) on all branches of Irish Natural History 
are invited. Articles must reach the Editors, on or before the 10th of the Month, 
for insertion in the succeeding number. Short Notes will be inserted, if space 
permit, if received before the 15th of the Month. Please address to one of the 
Editors and not to the Publishers, and do not write on postcards. 

Natural History Specimens sent to the Editors will be referred to authorities 
for identification. 

G. H. Carpenter, 

Royal College of Science, Dvhlin, 

R. Lloyd Praeger, 

National Library, Dublin, 



¥ol. xxvii., NOr 6. June, 1918. 



CONTENTS. 



P^^E 



The Convolvulus Hawk-Moth in Ireland — J. N. Halbert, 

iVl>xv>l.<A* •• •• .. •« ,, oX 

Notes on Some Alien Plants of Co. -Dublin — N; Colgan, 

M.R.I.A. . . . . .-'. .... 86 

Irish Societies : 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Cliib . . . . . . . . go 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club . . . . . . . , go 

Dublin Microscopical Ciub . . , . . , , , gi 

The Migration of Woodcock— W. H. Workman,, f.z.s. . . 92 



NoTKS : 



Cardamine amara in East Tyrone — Sylvanus Wear ., 
Arenaria ciliata . . 

Karly Arrival of Spring Migrants — Nevin H. Foster, f.r.s. 
A Magpie's Flight—Rev. W. W. Flemyng,- m.a. . . 

Corncrake in Trinity College Park — J. Mackay Wilson '^ 



95 
9.5 
96 
96 
96 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1903; January, 1894; and September, 

1904. 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 

TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 



s d. 
Whole Page ... ... ... From 10 

Half Page ... •>• •*. ,, 6 6 

Quarter Page ... ... ... ,, 4 

A Reduction ^iven for a Number of Insertions, 

4I.KX. THOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN. 



According to 
Position. 



:.^<^- ■■'■'■ 



Vol. XXVII. No. 7. 
JULY. 1918. 




■4 



.,i>i 



mm& 



luf 



Vi 



a flDontbl? Journal 

ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY. 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY 8c PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, D.Sc, M.R.l.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.l.A. 




The |R<3H ilATURALIST for 19t6 (tweive parts) wHi be sent tc ar.y Address 
fir 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

PMTURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD. M.Sc, >F.G.S., F.R.G.S., P.§.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; . 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D,, M.Sc, F.L.S., Tegil Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCB AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M^.O.U.^ RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1835. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE. E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull, 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. it also containjt Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE. 



« f 



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Half-yearly 14 6 

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( To all places Abroad) £ s. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Haif-Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly .. 8 



,*♦ A charge of Sixpence is made for chang^ing Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

.Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable tcMACAiiLLAN & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRFXAND. 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.ITI. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES, 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Conations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof, G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAllTMENT OF AORICULTUEE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No 


. 1. 




O 


»» 




f> 


3 


t> 


4 


i> 


5 


>i 


6. 


i> 


7 


>• 


8 


19 


9 


» 


10 


f • 


11 


9t 


12 


»> 


13 


;■ 


14 


t* 


15 


ft 


16 


tt 


17 


>» 


18 




19 


»l 


20 




21 


II 


22 


II 


23 


II 


24. 


»> 


25 




26 


>l 


27. 


II 


28. 


II 


29 


tl 


30 


II 


31. 


II 


32. 


II 


33. 




34. 


II 


35. 


If 


36 


II 


37. 


II 


38 


11 


39. 


If 


40 


II 


41. 


1) 


42 




43. 



44 

)i *^- 

I, 45. 

II 46 

.1 47. 

„ 48 

I, 49. 

., 50 

;, 51. 

„ 52. 
I, 53. 
.. 54. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Peeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly. 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Bhght. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
S\\ine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pig.s. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Tiu-keyS' 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

,, „ Meadow Hay 

,, „ Potatoes. 

„ ,. Mangels. 

,, ,, Oats. 

,, „ Turnips. 

Permanent Pasture Grisses 
The Rearing and Management of 

Cliickena 
• Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Hou-ses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of & Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



II 

91 



No. 55. The Apple. 
„ 56. Cultivation of the Root Crop. 
„ 57. Marketing of Fruit 

58. Sproiiting Seed Potatoes. 

59. Testing of Farm Seeds, 

60. The Packing of Butter. 

,, 61. Field Experiments — Wheat. 
I ,, 62. The Management oi Dairv Cows. 
„ 63. " Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
„ 64. Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 

Cultivation in Ireland. 
„ 65. Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 
I „ 66. Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees 
„ 67. Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
' Timber. 

„ 68. Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 
69. The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 

Cattle. 
70 Forestry : Planting, Management, 
ind Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timb i 

71. Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

72. Forestry : FeUing and Selling Timber 
73 The Planting and Management of 

Hedges. 
74. Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

75 Barley Sowing 

76 American Gooseuerry Mildew. 
77. Scorn: and Wasting in Young Cattle 
78 Home Buttermaking 

79. The Cultivation of Small Fruit^t 

80. Catch Crop- 

81. Potato Culture on Small Farms. 

82. Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoe.<5 

83. Cultivation of Osiers. 

84. Ensilage. 
85 Some Injiu-ious Orchard Insects. 

86. Du-tv Milk. 

87. Barley Threshing 

88. The Home Bottling of Friiit 

89 The Construction of Piggeries. 

90 The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
91. Black Scab in Potatoes 
92 Home Preservation of Eggs. 

93. Marketing of Wild Fruit.£. 

94. Cost of Forest Planting. 

95. Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

96. Packing Eggs for Hatching 

97. Weeds. 

9^. Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
99 Seaweed in Manure 



19 
91 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. Catch Crops. i No. 11. 

,, 2. Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

„ 3. Eggs and Poultry. „ 12. 

„ 4. Tlie War and Food Production 

„ 5. The Sowing of Spring Wheat. ,, 13. 

,, 6. Winter Manuring (irass Lands. , 14. 

„ 7. Feeding of Pigs — Use of Boiled Swedes. ,, 15. 

, 8. Destruction of Farm Pest. ,, 16. 

,, 9. Grain Crops. ,, 17. 

„ 10. Pig Feeding — The need for economy. 

Copies of the above Ita^ds can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on application to the 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Technical I nstruction for Ireland. Upper Merrxon Street, 

Dublin. Letters of application so addressed need not be stamped. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
Ihix-seed for 1918 Sowing. 
Purchase of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Siii)erphosphate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY ' 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 

Keeper, National History Department, Royal Sconish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., ' 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotlandj and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER &, BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



NOTICE. 

Authors of Papers in the IRISH NATURALIST can be supplied with 50 Reprints 
at the following prices : — 

s. d. s. d. 



2 pp. ... ... 40 

4 pp. ... ... 6 



6 pp. ... ... 8 

8 pp. ... ... 9 



Authors should apply for Reprints when returning proofs, but any subsequent 
correspondence about Reprints should be sent to the Printers, Messrs. A. Thorn and 
Co., 8 Crow Street, Dublin, not to the Editors nor the Publishers. 

CONTRIBUTIONS (Articles or Notes) on all branches of Irish Natural History 
are invited. Articles must reach the Editors, on or before the 10th of the Month, 
for insertion in the succeeding number. Short Notes will be inserted, if space 
permit, if received before the 15th of the Month. Please address to one of the 
Editors and not to the Publishers, and do not write on postcards. 

Natural History Specimens sent to the Editors will be referred to authorities 
for identification. 

G. H. Carpenter, 

Royal College of Science, Dublin. 

K. Lloyd Praeger, 

National Library, Dublin. 



Vol. xxvii., No. 7. July, 1918. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



William Francis de Visnies Kane — Prof. Geo. H^ Car- 
penter, (with Bibliography compiled by J.' N. 

Halbert, and Portrait) . . . . . . 97 

Botanical Notes from Iniskioge — R. Lloyd Praeger . . 103 

Some more Irish Ichneumonidae and Braconidae— Rev. 

W. F. Johnson, m.a. . . . . . . 106 

Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society . . . . . . . . . . no 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Cub . . . . . . . . no 

Notes: 

A New Station for Lathraea squamaria in Co. Dublin — J. P. no 

Brunker . , . . . . . . . . . . I 10 

Draba muralis in Co. Longford — N. H. Foster .. .. no 

Bird Life at Currygrane, Co. Longford— J. Mackey Wilson, d.l. in 

Green Sandpiper in Co. Westmeath — Lt. Fred. S. Beveridge 112 

Snow Geese at Mutton Island, Go. Galway — William Ruxledge 112 

Incubation Period of Birds — Mrs: Rait Kerr .. " . . 112 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1 903 ; January, 1 894 ; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH naturalist;- 

Care 0/ Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 

s d. 
Whole Page ... ... ... From 10 

Half Page ... ... .«• •• 6 6 

Quarter Page ... ... ... ,, 4 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions, 



According to 
Position. 



ALEX. THOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN. 



Vol. XXVII. Nos. 8, 9. 
AUG.-SEPT.. 1918. 



rn\i 



m 



S ii 




Wmm 



KX-l 



X^ 



ir^^^ 



H fIDontbl? 3ournall|l ^^ 



ON 



GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTi 



kfh\h^ 



.4>\ 



ORGAN O- THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY &. PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 



EDITED BY 

Prof. GEOR^GE H. CARPENTER, D.Sc, M.R.I.A. 



AND 



R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 



The IRISH flATURALIST for 1916 (twtlve partt) will be sent tft any Address- 
for Ss. Subscriptions should bs sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH 0? ENGLAND, 

EDITED BY 

T SHEPPAKD. M.Sc, F.G.S.. F.R.G.S.. F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T.^W. WOODHEAD. Ph.D.,, M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll.. 

HUDDiRSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., Kl.S., GSO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc., M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

Thrs Journal is one ^f the oldest .Scientific Periodicals in tlie British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS^ Ltd., 5] FARRINGDON AVENUE. E.C. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communicatioaa to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest. 

SUBSCRIPTIONSTO "NATURE." 

£ R. d, I {To ail places Abroady £ s. 'd. 

Yearly 18 1 Yearly 1 10 5 

Halt-yearly 14 6 | Half-Yearly .. 15 8 

Quarterly 0^6 I Quarterly 080 

, :', A ci'.aii^e of Sixpence is ini.ie I'ji- chang^my "-(liKii .imi lrif.ti C1j<"<1"^s. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co,, Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OP THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HEMALAYAI^ AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPHNZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 
ANGLO-NUBIAN GOAT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

ZEBiJS, WITH CALF. 



YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

RBFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish op Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prop, G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 



S. 
4. 
5. 

0. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 

;.i 

12 

18. 

U 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18 

19. 

20. 

21. 

22. 

23. 

24. 



„ 25 

, 26. 
„ 27. 
„ 28. 

.. 29 
., 3C. 

„ 31 

1» •'^- 

„ S3. 

,. 34. 

„ 35. 

„ 36 

„ 37. 

„ 38 

„ 39. 

.. *o 

„ 41. 
.. 42. 

„ 4i. 

» 44. 
M 45. 

» 46 
,. 47. 
.. 48 
.. 49 
.. 50 
„ 51. 
„ 52 
.. 58. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchaie of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery I-eaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timotliv Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Lit) (lid Manure 

CoMtatnous Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manurea. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Hulls 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg. Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Wi!>+er Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys- 
Protitahle Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Fitli Experiments — Barley. 

,, „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes. 

„ M Mangels. 

„ „ Oats. 

Turnips. 
Permanent Pasture Grasses 
The Rearing and Management of 

Cliickens 
"Husk" or "Hoose" in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather- Jacket Grub. 
Hax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



No. 55. The Apple 
„ 56. Cultivation of the Root Crop. 
„ 57. Marketing of Fruit 
„ ^8. Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 
„ 59. Testing of Farm Seeds 
., 60. The Packing of Butter 
,, 61. Field Experiments — Wheat. 
,, 62. The Management of Dairv Cows 
„ 63. " Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
„ 64. Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 

Cultivation in Ireland. 
„ 65. Forestry : The Planting of Waste 

Lands. 
„ 66. Forestry : The Proper Method of 

Planting Forest Trees 
„ 67. Forestry ; Trees for Poles and 

Timber. 
„ 68. Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 

Ornament. 
„ 69. The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 

Cattle. 
,, 70. Forestry : Planting, Management, 

nnd Preservation of Shelter- Belt 

and Hedgerow Timb r 
, 71. Forestry : The Management of 

Plantations 
72. Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
73 The Planting and Management of 

Hedges 
74, Some Common Parasites of the 

Sheep 

75 Barley Sowing 

76 American Gooseuerry Mildew. 
77. Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
78 Home Buttermaking 
79. The Cultivation of SmaU Fruits 
8U. Catch Crop> 

81. Potato Ciilture on Small Farms 

82. Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 

83. Cultivation of Osiers. 

84. Ensilage. 
86 Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 

86. Dirtv MUk. 

87. Barlev Threshing 

88. The Home Bottling of Fruit 

89 The Construction of Piggeries. 

90 The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
91. Black Scab in Potatoes 
92 Home Preservation of Eggs. 

93. Marketing of Wild Fruits. 

94. Cost of Forest Planting. 

95. Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

96. Packing Eggs for Hatching 

97. Weeds 

9*^. Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
99 Seaweed in Manure 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. Catch Crops. 

,, 2. Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

„ 3. Eggs and Poultry. 

,. 4. The War and Food Production 

,, 5. Tlie Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

,, 6. Winter Manuring (irass Lands. 

„ 7. Feeding of Pigs —Use of Boiled Swedes. 

., 8. Destr'iction oi Faira Pest. 

,, 9. Grain Crops. 

,, 10. Pig Feeding — The need for economy. 

Copiet 0/ the above Uaffets can be obtained free 
Seerttary Department of Agriculture and Technical 

Dublin. Letter* of application $o addreJtted need 



No. 11. 

a, J •J. 



13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
Flax-seed for 1918 Sowing. 
Purcha-e of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Superpiiosphate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers. 



of charge, and post free, on application to ihr 
Instruction for Ireland. Upper Merrwn Street, 
not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE.. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 
'Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scouish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E.. 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



;X...' ■■- > .-ri ' :'': ' 

* * . 

This Magazine — founded in 187 1 — is deroted to the publication of Orig-inal Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observatiohs on Lifrt Histories, etc., and Notes recording tire occurrence of uncommon species and 

other useful and interesting^ facts. ' - 



Edinburgh : OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



NOTICE. 

Authors of Papers in the'IRISH NATURALIST can be supplied with 50 Reprints 
at the following prices : — 

s. d. .s. d. 



2 pp. ... ... 4 

4 pp. ... i.. 6 



6^ pp. ... 8 

8 pp. ... ... 9 



Authors should apply for Reprints when returning proofs, but any subsequent 
correspondence about Reprints should be sent to the Printers, Messrs. A. Thorn and 
Co., 8 Crow Street, Dublin, not to the Editors nor the Publishers. 

CONTRIBUTIONS (Articles or Notes) on all branches of Irish Natural History 
are invited. Articles must reach the Editors, on or before the 10th of the Month, 
for insertion in the succeeding number. Short Notes will be inserted, if space 
permit, if received before the 15th of the Month. Please address to one of the 
Editors and not to the Publishers, and do not write on postcards. 

Natural History Specimens sent to the Editors will be referred to authorities 
for identification. 

<;. K. ('akpkn'jm'Ui, 

libyal College of Science-y Dublin. 

H. LiA)^ I) Pkaeger,, 

N'aiional Library, Dublin. 



Vol. xxvii., Rot. 8, 9. Aug.-Sept., 1918. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Reappearance of Lathyrus maritimus in Kerry — Reginald 

W. Scully, f.l.s. . . . . . . . . 113 

Some Co. Down Plants— R. Lloyd Praeger . . 116 

The Limnaeae of the Alpine Lakes in the Glenga:rriff 

District, West Cork - H. C. Huggins .' . .. 119 

Obituary : 

Robert O. Cunningham . . .. .. .. ., 128 

James Napier Miln6-^A. W. Stelfox . . . . . , 129 



Notes : 

Chiysomyxa abietis in IrelandT— ^G*- H. Pethybridge, b.sc. 

Poisonous -Ptpperties of Oenanthe crocata .. • 

Black Terns on Lough Carra, Co. Mayo — W. Ruttledge 

Jays feeding on Wheat — ^W. 'SI. Abbott . . . . ' 

Scarcity of the Fieldfare. Owls clapping their Wings- — C. B 
Moffat, m.r.i.a. 



130 

130 
130 

132 



The f^ublishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1 903 ; January, 1 894 ; and September, 

1904. 

// sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR AOVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 

s d. 
Whole Page ... ... ... From 10 

Half Page ... ... ••. ,. ^66 

Quarter Page ... ... ••. «> 4 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions, 



According to 
Pouition. 



AI^EX. THOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN, 




[Vol. XXYII. Nos. 10, 11. 
OCT.-NOV., 1918. 



-.#»« 



i^:Mf^ 









vm 






H flDontbl? 3ournaI 

ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY. 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY 8c PHILOSOPHICAL SOCI 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. _,,^ 




^ii/;'b?<' 



EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, D.Sc, M.R.I.A. 



AND 



R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.LA. 



The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twefva parts) will be sent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

\ 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HIST(j^Y FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, .F.G.S.. F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.p„ M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HubpERSFlELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, FJ^.S. 

This Jpurnal is one of theoldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London: A. BROWN j& SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE. E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

« 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OP SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientific works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials : Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign Journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the. Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest. 

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Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd.» St, 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



^i 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THK 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND^ 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND PCLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HiU3E. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 
AN3L0-NUBIAN GOAT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish op Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon, Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



depaktment of aoricultuee and technical 
instruction for ireland. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 



f» 


s. 


ir 


4. 


99 


5. 


»» 


e. 


»» 


7. 


ft 


8. 


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38 


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39. 




40 


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41. 




42. 


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48. 


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44. 


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45. 


>» 


46 


»? 


47. 


9» 


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50 


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fl 


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. 1. 


1 1 


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4. 


»l 


5. 


>9 


6. 


t» 


7. 




8. 


»> 


9. 


II 


10. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue \ 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys- 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

,, „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes. 

„ ,. Mangels. 

„ „ Oats. 

Turnips. 
Permanent Pasture Grasses 
The Rearing and Management of 

Chickens 



" Husk 



Hooee " in Calves 



Eingv/orm on Cattle 

Havmaking 

The Black Currant Mit«. 

Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 

Poultry Fattening. 

Portable Poultry Houses. 

The Leather-.Tacket Grub. 

Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 

Calf Meals. 



No. 


55 


» 


56 


tt 


57 


» 


58 


>> 


59 


«> 


60 


»f 


61. 


t» 


62 


ti 


63 


»» 


64 


» 


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ft 


66 


t> 


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68 


9> 


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93 


70 



7L 



s» 


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it 


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H 


92 


tt 


93 


tt 


94 


!t 


95 


II 


96 


II 


97 




9^ 


II 


99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

"Eedwater" or "Blood-Murrain" 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
find Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timb.r. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Goose oerry Mildew. 
Scovu" and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits 
Catch Crops 

Potato Culture on Small Farms 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injiu*iou8 Orchard Insects. 
Du-ty Milk. 
Barlev Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
Tl:e Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservatiop of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed in Manure 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



Catch Crops. 

Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

The War and Food Prodtiction 

The Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

Winter Manuring Grass Lands. 

Feeding of Pigs — Use of Boiled Swedes. 

Destr'Jction of Farm Pest. 

Grain Crops. 

Pig Feeding — The need for economy. 



No. 11. 
.. 12. 



13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
Flax-seed for 1918 Sowing. 
Purchase of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Superphosphate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers. 



Copiti o/ the above Ita^ets can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on application to the 
.^ecrctaru Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Upper Merrton Street, 
Dublin. Lett^t of application to addressed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREF- 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 

Keeper. National History Department, Royal Sco^Jsh Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW. F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Mag-azine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of i^cotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording; the occurrence of uncommon species and 

other useful and interesting: facts. ' 



Edinburgh .* OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Coirrt. 



NOTICE. 

Authors of Papers in the IRISH NATURALIST can be supplied mth 50 Reprints 
at the following prices : — 

s. d. s. d. 



2 pp. ... 4 

4 pp. ... ... 6 



6 pp. ... ... 8 

8 pp. ... ... 9 



Authors should apply for Reprints when returning proofs, but any subsequent 
correspondence about Reprints should be sent to the Printers, Messrs. A. Thorn and 
Co., 8 Crow Street, Dublin, not to the Editors nor the Publishers. 

CONTRIBUTIONS (Articles or Notes) on all branches of Irish Natural History 
are invited. Articles must reach the Editors, on or before the 10th of the Month, 
for insertion in the succeeding number." Short Notes will be inserted, if space 
permit, if received before the 15th of the Month. Please address to one of the 
Editors and not to the Publishers, and do not write on postcards. 

Natural History Specimens sent to the Editors will be referred to authorities 
for identification. 

G. H. Carpentejr, 

Royal College of Science, Dublin. 

R. LiiOYD Praeoer, 

National Library, Dublin. 



Vol. xxvii., No8. 10, 11. Oct-Nov., 1918. 



CONTENTS. 

• PAGE 

The Irish Red Deer— R. F. Scharff, b.sc, m.r.i.a. . . 133 
Some Notes on Birds, especially the Whitethroat — J. P. 

BURKITT . . . . . . . . . . 140 

Derc-Ferna : The Cave of Dunmore— R. Lloyd Praeger 148 

Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society . . . . . . , , , , i^g 

Belfast Naturalists Field Club . . . . . . . . 159 

Dublin Natnralists' Field Club . . . . , . . . 160 

Obituary : • 

Alice Scharff . . . , . . . . . . • • 162 

Arthur B. E. Hillas . . . . . , . . . . 162 

Notes : 

W. H. Harvey and Charles DarAvin— R. Lloyd Praeger . . I62 
3piranthes Romanzoffiana in Co, Armagh — Xevin H. Foster, 

F.L.s — R. Lloyd Praeger . . . . . . . . 163 

Galium sylvestre in Co. Antrim — ^W. R. Megaw , . , . 164 

Whales and Dolphins stranded in Ireland . . . . . . 164 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1 903 ; January, 1 894 ; and September, 

1 904, 

if sent flat to 

** IRISH NATURALIST," 

Caj^e of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Stfeet, 

Dublin. 

TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 



s d. 
Whole Page ..« ... ... From 10 

Half Page ... ... •.• ,» 6 6 

Quarter Page ... ... ,, 4 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions, 

' ▲LEX. THOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN. 



According to 
Posiition. 



l'®^-\\\ 



Vol. XXVII. No. 12. 
DECEMBER, 1918. 












&4<ci>;!i<« 



a^ 



T"^ 



H fiDontbl? 3ournal f^-:(4K 



ON 







GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HIS 



ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, D.Sc, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 






Mi 



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mim\ yiiiiiiiiiiyiiriiiiiuiiijiiirerw 




nie IRISH ifATURALIST for 1916 (twelve paH«) will be sent t& any Address 
for Ss. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd.» 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S.. F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; - 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sa. F.L.S., Tkch. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS RBFERBBS IN SPBCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS. Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communicatioas to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



■rw 



NATURE, 



WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journal? ; Reports of the Proceedings or the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the: World ; and Notes on an matters 
of current scientific interest. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

{To all places Abroad) £ s. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

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»'?> A charge of Sixpence is made for rh.mging .Scotch aod Irish Cheques. 

Chequei and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd.» St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 





£ s. d. 


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Quarterly 


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I 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OP THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELANDi 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. (Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 3d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HiUSE. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 
ANGLO-NUBIAN AND TOGGENBURG GOATS. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROiVI IVSUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Pros. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAKTMENT OF AGKICULTUEE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



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The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot In Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Pre.shaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly. 
Wireworins. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys- 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

„ „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes. 

„ „ Mangels. 

„ „ Oats. 

„ I, Turnips, 

Permanent Pasture Grasses 
The Rearing and Management of 

"Husk" or •• Hoose " in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-.! acket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf MealB. 



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The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairy Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Goose uerry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Butteruiaking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruita 
Catch Crop> 

Potato Culture on Small Farms 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty Milk. 
Barlev Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservatior of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed in Manure 



7PECIAL LEAFLETS. 



Catch Crops. 

Autumn Sownn Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

Tlie War and Food Production 

The Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

Winter Manuring iirass Lands. 

Feeding of Pigs -Use of Boiled Swedes. 

DestrMction of Farm Pest. 

Grain Crops. 

Pig Feeding — The need for economy. 



No. 11. 

.. 12. 

I, 13. 

. 14. 

„ 15. 

I, 16. 

.. 17. 



Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 
I'lax-seed for 1918 Sowing. 
Purchase of Basic Slag. 
Prices of Superphosphate. 
Prices of Compound Fertilisers 



Copit» of the above Uaj\ett can be obtained free of charge, o xd post free, on a/)/>lieation to thf 
Secretary D>'paHment of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Merrion Street, 
Dublin. Letters of application to addressed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6(1. PER ANNUM, POST FREF 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scoi*ish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 

Member of the British Ornithologists' Union, 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW. F.R.S.E.. 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Mag'azine — founded in 1871 — is deroted to the publication of Orig^inal Matter relating' to tne 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



NOTICE. 

Authors of Papers in the IRISH NATURALIST can be supplied with 50 Reprints 
at the following prices : — 

s. d. s. d. 



2 pp. ... ... 4 

4 pp. ... ... 6 



6 pp. ... ••• 8 

8 pp. ... ... 9 



Authors should apply for Reprints when returning proofs, but any subsequent 
correspondence about Reprints should be sent to the Printers, Messrs. A. Thorn and 
Co., 8 Crow Street, Dublin, not to the Editors nor the Publishers. 

CONTRIBUTIONS (Articles or Notes) on all branches of Irish Natural History 
are invited. Articles must reach the Editors, on or before the 10th of the Month, 
for insertion in the succeeding number. Short Notes will be inserted, if space 
permit, if received before the 15th of the Month. Please address to one of the 
Editors and not to the Publishers, and do not write on postcards. 

Natural History Specimens sent to the Editors will be referred to authorities 
for identification. 

G. H. Cahpentek, 

Royal College of Science, Dublin, 

R. Lloyd Praeger, 

National Library, Dublin. 



Vol. xxvil., Ho. 12. ^ December, 1918. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



On the Reproduction of the Common Garden Snail, Helix 

aspersa— Nathaniel CoLGAN, M.R.I. A. .. .. 165 

Irish Societies.: ' 

Dublin Microscopical Club .. .. .. .. 171 

Notes : 

Argynnis aglaia in north-west Wexford — C. B. Moffat, m.r.i.a. 172 

New locality for Thecla betulae— Ci-B. Moffat . . . , 172 

Abnormal Caterpillar of Ghoerocampa — ^W. E. PLart ... ., 172 

Go;iepteryx rhamni .|n\ Co. Fermanagh — H; B.-^RatJiborne .. 173 

Return of the Gold-crest— C, B. Moffat . . . , , , 173 

A few Bird Notes from Balbriggan — Rev. G. W. Benson, ll.d. 173 

A Jay in Co. Longford — J. Mackay Wilson . . , , 174 

Irish Myxomycetes— W. F. Gunn . . . . , , 174 



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Copies of 

February, 1903; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

CareofEsLSon and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 

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